• Guojun Zeng
  • Henk J. de Vries
  • Frank M. Go


Translocality describes the ways in which people have loyalties of one place but are residing elsewhere. This loyalty may influence their appreciation of authenticity that relates to either of these places. Food is one of the most tangible cultural forms representing a particular regional group. Restaurant owners may integrate authenticity in their food and service offer. This chapter reviews literature on translocality in general and then links this to restaurants’ authenticity. If they have different subsidiaries, they may copy the authentic concept or elements of that concept between subsidiaries—this is the standardization dimension. In this way a combination of authenticity and standardization may be a proper strategic choice for translocal restaurants.


  1. Apostolakis, A. (2003). The convergence process in heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(4), 795–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization. Minneapolis, MI: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  3. Barsamian, A., & Hammar, M. (2008). Connecting the Resources: Authenticity, Mass Customization and Revenue. Foodservice Institute of America (FIA) White Paper Based on the Symposium Held at Rush University Medical Center. Chicago, Illinois, 2008, August 12.Google Scholar
  4. Beer, S. (2008). Authenticity and food experience-commercial and academic perspectives. Journal of Foodservice, 19(3), 153–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Belhassen, Y., Caton, K., & Stewart, W. (2008). The search for authenticity in the Pilgrim experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3), 668–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, M. M., & Osti, G. (2010). Mobilities and ruralities: An introduction. Sociologia Ruralis, 50, 199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bessière, J. (1998). Local development and heritage: traditional food and cuisine as tourist attractions in rural areas. Sociologia Ruralis, 38(1), 21–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley, F. (1991). International Marketing Strategy. London UK: Prentice Hall International.Google Scholar
  9. Brayton, S., & Millington, B. (2011). Renovating ethnic identity on restaurant makeover. Social Identities, 17(2), 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chaney, S., & Ryan, C. (2011). Analyzing the evolution of Singapore’s world gourmet summit: an example of gastronomic tourism. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 309–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chang, R. C. Y., Kivela, J., & Mak, A. H. N. (2010). Food preferences of Chinese tourists. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(4), 989–1011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, E. (1972). Toward a sociology of international tourism. Social Research, 39, 163–182.Google Scholar
  13. Cohen, E. (1988). Authenticity and commoditization in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 15 (3), 371–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cohen, E., & Avieli, N. (2004). Food in tourism: attraction and impediment. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 755–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cole, S. (2007). Beyond authenticity and commodification. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(4), 943–960.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cook, I., & Crang, P. (1996). The world on a plate: culinary culture, displacement and geographical knowledge. Journal of Material Culture, 1(2), 131–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Culler, J. (1990). The Semiotics of Tourism, in Framing the Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions. University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cwiertka, J. K. (2006). Modern Japanese Cuisine: Food, Power and National Identity. pp. London, Reaktion Books, 2006.Google Scholar
  19. Czinkota, M. R., & Ronkainen, I. A. (1993). International marketing 3rd edition. Fort Worth: The Dryden Press.Google Scholar
  20. DeSoucey, M. (2010). Gastronationalism: food traditions and authenticity politics in the European Union. American Sociological Review, 75(3), 432–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Duke, M. (2003). Safe food: everyone’s responsibility. In WTO-CTO local food and tourism international conference, Larnaka, Cyprus, 9–11 November 2000 (pp. 128–131). World Tourism Organization (WTO).Google Scholar
  22. Fields, K. (2002). Demand for the gastronomy tourism product: Motivational factors. Tourism and gastronomy, 36–50.Google Scholar
  23. Gaytán, M. S. (2008). From Sombreros to Sincronizadas: Authenticity, Ethnicity, and the Mexican Restaurant Industry. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 37, 314–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerrie, E., Rand, D., Heath, E., & Alberts, N. (2003). The Role of Local and Regional Food in Destination Marketing. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 14(3–4), 97–112.Google Scholar
  25. Getz, D. (1998). Event Tourism and the Authenticity Dilemma (pp. 409–427). Global Tourism, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.Google Scholar
  26. Gilmore, J., & Pine, J. (1999). The Experience economy: work is theatre and every business a stage. Harvard Business Publ., Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  27. Giulianotti, R., & Robertson, R. (2006). Glocalization, globalization and migration: The case of Scottish football supporters in North America. International Sociology, 21(2), 171–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodman, S. G. D. (2006). Shanxi as translocal imaginary: reforming the local. 56–73. In: Oakes, T. and Schein L. Eds. Translocal China Linkages, identities, and the reimagining of space. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Govers, R., & Go, F.M. (2004). Cultural identities constructed, imagined and experienced: a 3-gap tourism destination image model. Tourism, 52(2), 165–182.Google Scholar
  30. Hall, C., & Mitchell, R. (2002). The changing nature of the relationship between cuisine and tourism in Australia and New Zealand: from fusion cuisine to food networks. Tourism and Gastronomy. 187–206.Google Scholar
  31. Hashimoto, A., & Telfer, D. J. (2006). Selling Canadian culinary tourism: branding the global and the regional product. Tourism Geographies, 8(1), 31–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hedberg, C., & Carmo, R. M. D. (2012).Translocal Ruralism: Mobility and Connectivity in European Rural Spaces. Geojournal Library, 27(33):76–76.Google Scholar
  33. Herbert J. Gans. (1979). Symbolic ethnicity: the future of ethnic groups and cultures in America. Ethnic & Racial Studies, 2(1), 1–20.Google Scholar
  34. Heldke, L. (2003). Exotic appetites: ruminations of a food adventurer. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Hughes, G. (1995). Authenticity in Tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(4), 781–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jameson, F. (1984). Postmodernism and consumer society. Amerikastudien/American Studies, 29(1), 55–73.Google Scholar
  37. Jang, S., Ha, J., & Park K. (2012). Effects of ethnic authenticity: Investigating Korean restaurant customers in the U.S. International Journal of Hospitality Management, doi: Scholar
  38. Kim, H., & Jamal, T. (2007). Touristic quest for existential authenticity. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1), 181–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kim, Y. G., Eves, A., & Scarles, C. (2009). Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: A grounded theory approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 423–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kolar, T., & Zabkar, V. (2010). A consumer-based model of authenticity: An oxymoron or the foundation of cultural heritage marketing? Tourism Management, 31, 652–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lau, R. W. K. (2010). Revisiting Authenticity: A Social Realist Approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 37(2), 478–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Littrell, M., Anderson, L., & Brown P. (1993). What makes a craft souvenir authentic? Annals of Tourism Research, 20, 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Liu, H. (2009). Chop Suey as Imagined Authentic Chinese Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States. Journal of Transnational American Studies, 1(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  44. Liu, H., & Lin, L. (2009). Food, Culinary Identity, and Transnational Culture: Chinese Restaurant Business in Southern California. Journal of Asian American Studies, 12(2), 135–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. MacCannell, D. (1999). The tourist: A new theory of the leisure class. University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. Mak, H. N. A., Lumbers, M., & Eves, A. (2012). Globalisation and food consumption in tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 39 (1), 171–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mansvelt, J. (2005). Geographies of Consumption. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Mkono, M. (2012). A netnographic examination of constructive authenticity in Victoria Falls tourist (restaurant) experiences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Molz, J. G. (2007). Eating difference. The cosmopolitan mobilities of culinary tourism. Space and Culture, 10(1), 77–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morris, M. (1990). Metamorphoses at Sydney Tower. New Formations, 11, 5–18.Google Scholar
  51. Moscardo, G. (2000). Cultural and heritage tourism: the great debates. In: Faulkner, B., Moscardo, G., Laws, E. (Eds.), Tourism in the Twenty-First Century: Reflections on Experience (pp. 3–17). Continuum, London.Google Scholar
  52. Nam, J. H., & Lee, T. J. (2011). Foreign travelers’ satisfaction with traditional Korean restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 982–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Naoi, T. (2004). Visitors’ evaluation of a historical district: the roles of authenticity and manipulation. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(1), 45–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Needham, D. M., & Rollins, B. R. (2005). Interest group standards for recreation and tourism impacts at ski areas in the summer. Tourism Management, 26, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Norberg-Hodge, H. (1999). We are all losers in the global casino: the march of the monoculture, The Ecologist, 29(2), 19–47.Google Scholar
  56. Oakes, T., & Schein, L. (2006). Translocal China Linkages, identities, and the reimagining of space. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Okumus, B., Okumus, F., & McKercher, B. (2007). Incorporating local and international cuisines in the marketing of tourism destinations: The cases of Hong Kong and Turkey. Tourism Management, 28(1), 253–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ooi, C. S. (2002). Contrasting strategies: tourism in Denmark and Singapore. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3), 689–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Oosterveer, P. (2006). Globalization and sustainable consumption of shrimp: consumers and governance in the global space of flows. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 30(5), 465–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Peacock, M. (1992). Towards a new consumer. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 11(4), 301–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Phua, V. C., Berkowitz, D., & Gagermeier, M. (2012). Promoting multicultural tourism in Singapore. Annals of Tourism Research, doi: Scholar
  62. Pine, B. J., & Gilmore, J. H. (2000). Satisfaction, sacrifice, surprise: three small steps create one giant leap into the experience economy. Strategy and Leadership, 28(1), 18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Quan, S., & Wang, N. (2004). Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: an illustration from food experiences in tourism. Tourism Management, 25(3), 297–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ram, U. (2004). Glocommodification: How the global consumes the local-McDonald’s in Israel. Current Sociology, 52 (1), 11–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Reisinger, Y., & Steiner, C.J. (2006).Reconceptualizing object authenticity. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(1), 65–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ritzer, G. (1996). The McDonaldization of society. Pine Forge Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.Google Scholar
  67. Robertson, R. (1995). Glocalization: Time-space and homogeneity-heterogeneity. In M. Featherstone, S. Lash, and R. Robertson (Eds.), Global modernities (pp. 25–44). London: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Robinson, R.N.S., & Clifford, C. (2012). Authenticity and Foodservice Festival Experiences. Annals of Tourism Research, 39 (2), 571–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Ryan, C. (2002). The tourist experience. Cengage Learning Emea.Google Scholar
  70. Seo, S., Phillips, W., Jang, J. & Kim, K. (2012). The effects of acculturation and uncertainty avoidance on foreign resident choice for Korean foods. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31 (3), 916–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Sheller, M., & Urry, J. (2006). The new mobilities paradigm. Environmental and Planning A, 38, 201–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Short, J.R., Boniche, A., Kim, Y., & Li, P.L. (2001). Cultural globalization, global English, and geography journals. Professional Geographer, 53(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Sims, R. (2009). Food, place and authenticity: local food and the sustainable tourism experience. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(3), 321–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Smart, A. & Lin, G. C. S. (2007). Local capitalisms, local citizenship and translocality: Rescaling from below in the Pearl River Delta region, China. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 31(2), 280–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Smith, A. (2005). Reimaging the City: the Value of Sport Initiatives, Annals of Tourism Research, 32(1), 217–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Symons, M. (1993). The shared table: Ideas for Australian cuisine. Canberra: AGPS.Google Scholar
  77. Tomlinson, J. (1991). Cultural imperialism: A critical introduction. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Torres, R. (2002). Toward a better understanding of tourism and agriculture linkages in the Yucatan: Tourist food consumption and preferences. Tourism Geographies, 4(3), 282–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tsai, C., & Lu, P. (2012). Authentic dining experiences in ethnic theme restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, 304–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Um, S., & Crompton, J. L. (1990). Attitude determinants in tourism destination choice. Annals of Tourism Research, 17(3), 432–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Urry, J. (1995). Consuming places. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  82. Valiente-Neighbours, J. M. (2012). Mobility, embodiment, and scales: Filipino immigrant perspectives on local food. Agric Hum Values, DOI Scholar
  83. Van den Berghe, P.L. (1984). Ethnic cuisine: culture in nature. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 7, 387–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Veblen, T. (1975). The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York: Augustus.Google Scholar
  85. Wang, N. (1997). Vernacular house as an attraction: illustration from hutong tourism in Beijing. Tourism Management, 18(8), 573–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wang, N. (1999). Rethinking authenticity in tourism experience. Annals of Tourism Research, 26(2), 349–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wang, Y. (2007). Customized Authenticity Begins at Home. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(3), 789–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wilhelmina, Q., Joost, J., George, E., & Guido, R. (2010). Globalization vs. localization: Global food challenges and local solutions. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 34(3), 357–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Weber K., Heinze K., & DeSoucey M. (2008). Forage for Thought: Mobilizing Codes in the Movement for Grass-fed Meat and Dairy Products. Administrative Science Quarterly, 53(3), 529–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Woods, M. (2007). Engaging the global countryside: globalization, hybridity and the reconstitution of rural place. Progress in Human Geography, 31(4), 485–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Yan, N. (2004). Chinese Restaurants and the Interpretation of Food: The Culinary Identity of Chinese Restaurants in the United States. Master Thesis of the Ohio State University.Google Scholar
  92. Yeoman, I. S., Brass, D., & Mcmahon-Beattie, U. (2007). Current issue in tourism: the authentic tourist. Tourism management, 28(4), 1128–1138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guojun Zeng
    • 1
  • Henk J. de Vries
    • 2
  • Frank M. Go
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Tourism ManagementSun Yat-sen UniversityGuangzhouChina
  2. 2.Rotterdam School of ManagementErasmus UniversityRotterdamThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations