Growth and Differentiation of Dental Stem Cells of Apical Papilla on Polycaprolactone Scaffolds

  • Mohamed Jamal
  • Yaser Greish
  • Sami Chogle
  • Harold Goodis
  • Sherif M. KaramEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1077)


Biodegradable scaffolds are useful tools in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The aim of this study was to test the potential of the human stem cells of apical papilla (SCAP) to attach, proliferate and differentiate on a polycaprolactone (PCL)-based scaffolds. SCAP were extracted from the root apical papillae of freshly extracted immature premolar teeth by using enzymatic digestion. Porous PCL scaffolds were fabricated using particle leaching method and NaCl or mannitol as porogens. SCAP of passage 3 were seeded on non-porous and porous PCL scaffolds for up to 14 days. For control, cells were cultured on glass coverslips. Picogreen DNA quantification was used to assay for cell proliferation. Cell differentiation and development of calcification nodules were examined using scanning electron microscopy and alizarin red staining. SCAP showed a comparable attachment, growth and proliferation patterns on PCL scaffolds and coverslips. Cell proliferation was enhanced on mannitol scaffolds at all time points. Calcification nodules were detected in all PCL scaffolds while it was not present on glass coverslips. These nodules were detected on NaCl-scaffolds by day 7 and on mannitol and non-porous scaffolds by day 14. In conclusion, SCAP were able to attach, proliferate and differentiate on PCL scaffolds without using any inductive media, indicating their potential application for dental tissue regeneration.


Polycaprolactone Stem cells of apical papilla Dental stem cells Calcification nodules Porous scaffolds Regenerative endodontics 


  1. 1.
    Windley W, Teixeira F, Levin L, Sigurdsson A, Trope M (2005) Disinfection of immature teeth with a triple antibiotic paste. J Endod 31(6):439–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Iwaya SI, Ikawa M, Kubota M (2001) Revascularization of an immature permanent tooth with apical periodontitis and sinus tract. Dent Traumatol 17(4):185–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Banchs F, Trope M (2004) Revascularization of immature permanent teeth with apical periodontitis: new treatment protocol? J Endod 30(4):196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chueh L, Huang G (2006) Immature teeth with Periradicular periodontitis or abscess undergoing Apexogenesis: a paradigm shift. J Endod 32(12):1205–1213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Diogenes A, Henry MA, Teixeira FB, Hargreaves KM (2013) An update on clinical regenerative endodontics. Endod Top 28(1):2–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hargreaves KM, Diogenes A, Teixeira FB (2014) Paradigm lost: a perspective on the design and interpretation of regenerative endodontic research. J Endod 40(4 Suppl):S65–S69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang GTJ, Al-Habib M, Gauthier P (2013) Challenges of stem cell-based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective. Endod Top 28(1):51–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yu J, Jamal M, Garcia-Godoy F, Huang GTJ (2015) Dental pulp stem cell niche. In: Tissue-specific stem cell niche. Cham, Springer, pp 163–189 (Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine; vol. 97)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sonoyama W, Liu Y, Fang D, Yamaza T, Seo B-M, Zhang C et al (2006) Mesenchymal stem cell-mediated functional tooth regeneration in swine. PLoS One 1:e79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sonoyama W, Liu Y, Yamaza T, Tuan RS, Wang S, Shi S et al (2008) Characterization of the apical papilla and its residing stem cells from human immature permanent teeth: a pilot study. J Endod 34(2):166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Huang GTJ, Sonoyama W, Liu Y, Liu H, Wang S, Shi S (2008) The hidden treasure in apical papilla: the potential role in pulp/dentin regeneration and bioroot engineering. J Endod 34(6):645–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Huang GTJ, Yamaza T, Shea LD, Djouad F, Kuhn NZ, Tuan RS et al (2010) Stem/progenitor cell–mediated de novoregeneration of dental pulp with newly deposited continuous layer of dentin in an in vivo model. Tissue Eng Part A 16(2):605–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hayashi T (1994) Biodegradable polymers for biomedical uses. Prog Polym Sci [Internet] 19(4):663–702 Available from: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gunatillake P, Mayadunne R, Adhikari R (2006) Recent developments in biodegradable synthetic polymers. Biotechnol Ann Rev [Internet] 12:301–347 Available from: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bezwada RS, Jamiolkowski DD, Lee IY, Agarwal V, Persivale J, Trenka-Benthin S et al (1995) Monocryl suture, a new ultra-pliable absorbable monofilament suture. Biomaterials [Internet] 16(15):1141–1148 Available from: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sun H, Mei L, Song C, Cui X, Wang P (2006) The in vivo degradation, absorption and excretion of PCL-based implant. Biomaterials [Internet]. 27(9):1735–1740 Available from: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ma G, Song C, Sun H, Yang J, Leng X (2006) A biodegradable levonorgestrel-releasing implant made of PCL/F68 compound as tested in rats and dogs. Contraception [Internet]. Available from:
  18. 18.
    Miner MR, Berzins DW, Bahcall JK (2006) A comparison of thermal properties between gutta-percha and a synthetic polymer based root canal filling material (Resilon). JOEN [Internet] 32(7):683–686 Available from: Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zalfen AM, Nizet D, Jérôme C, Jérôme R, Frankenne F, Foidart JM et al (2008) Controlled release of drugs from multi-component biomaterials. Acta Biomater [Internet] 4(6):1788–1796 Available from: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Alani A, Knowles JC, Chrzanowski W, Ng Y-L, Gulabivala K (2009) Ion release characteristics, precipitate formation and sealing ability of a phosphate glass–polycaprolactone-based composite for use as a root canal obturation material. Dent Mater [Internet] 25(3):400–410 Available from: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liao C-J, Chen C-F, Chen J-H, Chiang S-F, Lin Y-J, Chang K-Y (2001) Fabrication of porous biodegradable polymer scaffolds using a solvent merging/particulate leaching method. J Biomed Mater Res [Internet] 59(4):676–81. Available from: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Yang X, Yang F, Walboomers XF, Bian Z, Fan M, Jansen JA (2010) The performance of dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous PCL/gelatin/nHA scaffolds. J Biomed Mater Res A 93(1):247–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bellows CG, Aubin JE, Heersche JN, Antosz ME (1986) Mineralized bone nodules formed in vitro from enzymatically released rat calvaria cell populations. Calcif Tissue Int 38(3):143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Agrawal CM, Ray RB (2001) Biodegradable polymeric scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res 55(2):141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sodian R, Sperling JS, Martin DP, Egozy A, Stock U, Mayer JE et al (2000) Fabrication of a trileaflet heart valve scaffold from a polyhydroxyalkanoate biopolyester for use in tissue engineering. Tissue Eng 6(2):183–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Annabi N, Nichol JW, Zhong X, Ji C, Koshy S, Khademhosseini A et al (2010) Controlling the porosity and microarchitecture of hydrogels for tissue engineering. Tissue Eng Part B Rev 16(4):371–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thadavirul N, Pavasant P, Supaphol P (2014) Development of polycaprolactone porous scaffolds by combining solvent casting, particulate leaching, and polymer leaching techniques for bone tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A 102(10):3379–3392CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed Jamal
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yaser Greish
    • 3
  • Sami Chogle
    • 4
  • Harold Goodis
    • 5
  • Sherif M. Karam
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Health SciencesUAE UniversityAl-AinUnited Arab Emirates
  2. 2.Department of Endodontics, Hamdan Bin Mohamed College of Dental MedicineMohamed Bin Rashid University of Medicine and Health SciencesDubaiUnited Arab Emirates
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, College of ScienceUAE UniversityAl-AinUnited Arab Emirates
  4. 4.Department of Endodontics, Henry M. Goldman School of Dental MedicineBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  5. 5.Department of Preventive & Restorative Dental Sciences, School of DentistryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations