Specialty Setup of Technical and Vocational Education
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Early Chinese higher education and technical and vocational education were carried out without the division of specialties. The Hongdumen Academy, which coexisted with the Tai Xue (Imperial College) in East Han Dynasty and specialized in literature and arts, the four institutes (Confucianism Institute, Chinese Metaphysics Institute, Literature Institute and History Institute) in the Southern and Northern Dynasties and the academies focusing on laws, calligraphy, arithmetic and medicine in Sui and Tang Dynasties, which are similar to the subsequent special academies and various colleges of literature, laws, theology and medicine of the universities in West Europe in the Middle Ages, could be considered as examples of education based on different specialties, albeit in rudimentary form. In the course of time, the constant development of society, economy, culture, science and technology, and the increasingly detailed social division of labor required that more specialties be set up. Consequently, recent higher education and technical and vocational education have established different majors and with various specializations. Before 1949 there were no specialties in Chinese higher education and vocational education. At that time, although the classification of departments and branches had something in common with the subsequent classification of specialties, it catered to a much more extensive social demand. It was not until 1952 that majors were extensively set up in Chinese educational institutions.