Membrane and Resins Permeation for Lactic Acid Feed Conversion Analysis

  • Edidiong Okon
  • Habiba Shehu
  • Ifeyinwa Orakwe
  • Edward GobinaEmail author
Conference paper


The process intensification of cellulose acetate membrane impregnation with resin catalysts and carrier gas transport with membrane was carried out. The different catalysts used were amberlyst 36, amberlyst 16, dowex 50w8x and amberlyst 15. The carrier gases used for the analysis of the esterification product were tested with a silica membrane before being employed for gas chromatography analysis. The different carrier gases tested were helium (He), nitrogen (N2), argon (Ar) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The experiments were carried out at the gauge pressure range of 0.10–1.00 bar at the temperature range of 25–100 °C. The carrier gas transport results with the membrane fitted well into the Minitab 2016 mathematical model confirming the suitability of Helium gas as a suitable carrier gas for the analysis of lactic acid feed with GC-MS. The esterification reaction of lactic acid and ethanol catalysed with the cellulose acetate membrane coupled with the different cation-exchange resins gave a conversion rate of up to 100%.


Cation-exchange Conversion Esterification Gas transport Lactic acid feed Membrane 



The Authors acknowledge the Centre for Process Integration and Membrane Technology (CPIMT) at RGU for providing the research infrastructure. Additionally, the sponsorship provided by the petroleum technology development fund (PTDF) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edidiong Okon
    • 1
  • Habiba Shehu
    • 1
  • Ifeyinwa Orakwe
    • 1
  • Edward Gobina
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of EngineeringCentre for Process Integration and Membrane Technology (CPIMT), The Robert Gordon University AberdeenAberdeenUK

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