Analysing Bottlenecks to Equal Participation in Primary Education in Bangladesh: An Equity Perspective

  • Laila Farhana Apnan BanuEmail author
  • Goutam Roy
  • Md. Shahriar Shafiq
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 44)


Bangladesh has made significant progress in expanding access to primary education, presumably in terms of enrolment, after it became signatory to the 1990 Education for All goals. However, the quantitative gains in enrolment have been counterbalanced by poor-quality education, making the system largely ineffective in ensuring learning for all. Furthermore, gains in the access and quality axis captured in national averages often mask disparities in school participation of children coming from different segments of the society. Drawing from literature available in the public domain and analysing secondary data related to measures of access and participation, this study analysed key participation gaps. The analysis found manifold layers of inequality that a child is likely to experience during schooling based on her/his age, gender, readiness, ability/disability, ethnicity, geographical location, socioeconomic background and parental awareness. Identification of children remaining out-of-school has been further explained by analyses of sociocultural, economic and pedagogical determinants. The study highlights policy and programmatic choices that may lead to more equal educational participation by reducing equity gaps.


Equity Access Social justice Educational participation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laila Farhana Apnan Banu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Goutam Roy
    • 2
  • Md. Shahriar Shafiq
    • 3
  1. 1.International Labour Organization BangladeshDhakaBangladesh
  2. 2.Institute of Education and ResearchUniversity of RajshahiRajshahiBangladesh
  3. 3.Government of BangladeshDhakaBangladesh

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