Environment Matters, But Not the Way You Think (II)

  • Rongxing Guo


Although civilization has been the most far-reaching achievement in human history, the origin of civilization is still imperfectly understood. It seems that existing theories have not given a satisfactory answer to the question how various environmental (geographic) factors matter. Now, the question is that, if it is the fertility of the crescent-shaped region that gave birth to the earliest human civilization, then why many other fertile areas, including those of southern Africa (also the place with by far the longest history of human occupation), North America, and Oceania, have never given birth to a powerful indigenous civilization? Over the course of human history, the environment has mattered to human and cultural behaviors, but not in the way historians have suggested. And, under certain conditions, some unfavorable boundary and external factors can incentivize civilizations and nations to develop and advance in the long run, if not in the short run.


Human evolution Civilization Environment External threat Long-run growth 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rongxing Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Capital University of Economics and BusinessBeijingChina

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