Win-Stay, Lose-Shift: A Survival Rule

  • Rongxing Guo


Historians have suggested that human civilization first resulted from comparatively fertile land in Mesopotamia. However, the use of the “Fertile Crescent” may confuse our search of the real factors contributing to the birth of ancient civilizations. In fact, existing college-level textbooks and relevant monographs have presented incomplete and sometimes misleading descriptions of the origin of civilizations. Still, historians and anthropologists have highly simplified, if not dismissed, the initial and environmental conditions under which the world’s indigenous civilizations emerged and developed. Indeed, “Win-Stay Lose-Shift” is the survival rule for mankind, and it is always losers who have had incentives to advance the cultures and civilizations throughout the world.


Human evolution Civilization Global history Wadi (river valley) Zero-sum game 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rongxing Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Capital University of Economics and BusinessBeijingChina

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