Advertisement

Carbon Fibers pp 295-342 | Cite as

Novel Carbon Fibers and Their Composites

  • Soo-Jin ParkEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.8k Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 210)

Abstract

Traditionally, the application of carbon fibers has been limited to very special fields such as aerospace and military because of their high cost. However, various techniques for low-cost carbon fibers are under development in terms of using low-cost precursors, low-cost manufacturing processes, and even functional coating methods. Moreover, future applications of carbon fibers can widen not only as structural reinforcements but also in information technology-based applications such as housings for electric devices, smart cloths, and healthcare items. In this chapter, we will cover the carbon fibers and their composites in recent various applications. In particular, these are classified as a low-cost production technique of carbon fibers for general industries, thin carbon fibers for extreme industries, and functional carbon fibers for smart composites.

Keywords

Carbon Nanofibers (CNFs) Nanofiber Yarns Mesoporous Silica Films CF Surfaces Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    C.D. Warren, Future Lower Cost Carbon Fiber for Autos: International Scale-up & What is Needed (Oak Ridge Nation Laboratory, USA)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Sjostrom, Wood Chemistry (Academic Press, San Diego, 1993)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.F. Kadla, S. Kudo, R.A. Venditti, R.D. Gilbert, A.L. Compere, W. Griffith, Carbon 40, 2913 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Qin, J.F. Kadla, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 50, 12548 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S.P. Maradur, C.H. Kim, S.Y. Kim, B.H. Kim, W.C. Kim, K.S. Yang, Synth. Met. 162, 453 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    O. Faruk, A.K. Bledzki, H.P. Fink, M. Sain, Prog. Polym. Sci. 37, 1552 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.W. Beckwith, SAMPE J. 44, 64 (2008)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Cho, J.M. Kim, I.S. Song, I. Hong, M1ater. Lett. 65, 1492 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D.A. Baker, T.G. Rials, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 130, 713 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Lin, K. Koda, S. Kubo, T. Yamada, M. Enoki, Y. Uraki, J. Wood Chem. Technol. 34, 111 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Thunga, K. Chen, D. Grewell, M.R. Kessler, Carbon 68, 159 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. Chatterjee, A. Clingenpeel, A. Mckena, O. Rios, A. Johs, RSC Adv. 4, 4743 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Zhang, A.A. Ogale, Carbon 69, 626 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D.D.L. Chung, Carbon Fiber Composites (Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. Bijwe, J. Indumathi, J.J. Rajesh, M. Fahim, Wear 249, 715 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    B.S. Gupta, W. George, Abs. Pap. Am. Chem. Soc. 37 (1972)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    B.S. Gupta, W. George, Textile Res. J. 45, 338 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    H.S. Kim, H.H. Cho, H. Ito, T. Kikutani, N. Okui, Seikei Kako. 9, 449 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. Twarowska-Schmidt, D. Grochowska-Lapienis, Fib. Tex. East. Eur. 8, 37 (2000)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. Marcher, Tappi J. 74, 103 (1991)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    J.H. Southern, D.H. Martin, D.G. Baird, Textile Res. J. 50, 411 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    D. Godshall, C. White, G.L. Wilkes, J. Appl. Polymer. Sci. 80, 130 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Z.M. Huang, Comp. Sci. Techol. 63, 2223 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L.C. Wadsworth, S.R. Malkan, Rev. Melt Blowing Technol. INB Nonwovens 2 (1991)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    W.J.G. McCulloch, Int. Nonwovens J. 8, 66 (1999)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Vishal, R.L. Shambaugh, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 37, 1799 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. Kaino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu 46, 257 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Doshi, D.H. Reneker, J. Electrostatics 35, 151 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Bognitzki, W. Czado, T. Frese, Adv. Mater. 13, 70 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    E. Zussman, D. Rittel, A.L. Yarin, Appl. Phy. Lett. 82, 3958 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. Elzatahry, Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 9, 22 (2014)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A.A. Taha, A.A. Hriez, Y.N. Wu, H. Wang, F. Li, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 417, 199 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    M. Endo, Chem. Tech. 18, 568 (1988)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    C. Journet, W.K. Maser, P. Bernier, A. Loiseau, M. Lamy dela Chapelle, S. Lefrant, P. Deniard, R. Lee, J.E. Fischer, Nature 388, 756 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y.H. Lee, S.G. Kim, A.G. Rinzler, D.T. Colber, G.E. Scuseria, D. Tomanek, J.E. Fischer, R.E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    S. Maity, L.N. Downen, J.R. Bochinski, L.I. Clarke, Polymer 52, 1674 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Y. Zhang, M. Park, H. Kim, B. Ding, S.J. Park, Appl. Surf. Sci. 384, 192 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Y. Zhang, M. Park, H. Kim, S.J. Park, J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 500, 155 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M.S.P. Shaffer, A.H. Windle, Adv. Mater. 11, 937 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    D. Matatagui, M.J. Fernández, J. Fontecha, I. Sayago, I. Grácia, C. Cané, M.C. Horrillo, J.P. Santos, Talanta 120, 408 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    W.J. Jin, H.K. Lee, E.H. Jeong, W.H. Park, J.H. Youk, Macr. Rap. Commun. 26, 1903 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    C. Yin, J. Dong, Z. Li, Z. Zhang, Q. Zhang, Comp. Part B Eng. 58, 430 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    M. Peng, D. Li, L. Shen, Y. Chen, Q. Zheng, H. Wang, Langmuir 22, 9368 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    N. Yusof, A.F. Ismail, J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 93, 1 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    V.I. Kostikov, Fibre Science and Technology (Chapman and Hall, London, 1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    P. Rajalingam, G. Radhakrishnan, JMS-Rev. Macromol. Chem. Phys. 31, 301 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. Moon, R.J. Farris, Carbon 47, 2829 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    C.K. Liu, R.J. Sun, K. Lai, C.Q. Sun, Y.W. Wang, Mater. Lett. 62, 4467 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    I.H. Chen, C.C. Wang, C.Y. Chen, J. Phys. Chem. C 114, 13532 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    R.A. Mrozek, B.S. Kim, V.C. Holmberg, T.A. Taton, Nano Lett. 3, 1665 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    P. Katta, M. Alessandro, R.D. Ramsier, G.G. Chase, Nano Lett. 4, 2214 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    M.F. Yu, O. Lourie, M.J. Dyer, K. Moloni, T.F. Kelly, R.S. Ruoff, Science 287, 637 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    S. Frank, P. Poncharal, Z.L. Wang, W.A. de Heer, Science 280, 1744 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    J. Hone, M. Whitney, A. Zettl, Synth. Met. 103, 2498 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    S. Berber, Y.K. Kwon, D. Tomanek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4613 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Q.W. Li, Y. Li, X.F. Zhang, S.B. Chikkannanavar, Y.H. Zhao, A.M. Dangelewicz, L.X. Zheng, S.K. Doorn, Q.X. Jia, D.E. Peterson, P.N. Arendt, Y.T. Zhu, Adv. Mater. 19, 3358 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    T. Qian, X. Zhou, C. Yu, S. Wu, J. Shen, J. Mater. Chem. A 1, 15230 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    F. Tardani, P. Strobbia, A. Scipioni, C. La Mesa, RSC Adv. 3, 25917 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Marchewski, J.B. In, D. Poulikakos, C.P. Grigoropoulos, Carbon 68, 308 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    R. Hamzaoui, S. Guessasma, B. Mecheri, A.M. Eshtiaghi, A. Bennabi, Mater. Design 56, 60 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Y.H. Zhang, K.Y. Rhee, S.J. Park, Compos. B 114, 111 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Y.N. Zhang, L.X. Zheng, Nanoscale 2, 1919 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    J.B. Xu, K.F. Hua, G.Z. Sun, X.Y. Lv, Y.J. Wang, Electrochem. Comm. 8, 982 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Y. Zhang, K. Rhee, S.J. Park, Compos. B Eng. 114, 111 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. Star, Y. Liu, K. Grant, L. Ridvan, J. Fraser Stoddart, D.W. Steuerman, M.R. Diehl, A. Boukai, J.R. Heath, Macromolecules 36, 553 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    M.S.P. Shaffer, A.H. Windle, Macromolecules 32, 6864 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    B. Vigolo, A. Penicaud, C. Coulon, C. Sauder, R. Pailler, C. Jonrnet, P. Bernier, P. Poulin, Science 290, 1331 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    C. Mercader, A. Lucas, A. Derré, C. Zakri, S. Moisan, M. Maugey, P. Poulin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 18331 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    B. Vigolo, P. Poulin, M. Lucas, P. Launois, P. Bernier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1210 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    E. Muñoz, A.B. Dalton, S. Collins, M. Kozlov, J. Razal, J.N. Coleman, B.G. Kim, V.H. Ebron, M. Selvidge, J.P. Ferraris, Adv. Eng. Mater. 6, 801 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    P. Miaudet, S. Badaire, M. Maugey, A. Derré, V. Pichot, P. Launois, P. Poulin, C. Zakri, Nano Lett. 5, 2212 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    A.B. Dalton, S. Collins, E. Munoz, J.M. Razal, V.H. Ebron, J.P. Ferraris, J.N. Coleman, B.G. Kim, R.H. Baughman, Nature 423, 703 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    C. Lynam, S.E. Moulton, G.G. Wallace, Adv. Mater. 19, 1244 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    M.E. Kozlov, R.C. Capps, W.M. Sampson, V.H. Ebron, J.P. Ferrais, R.H. Baughuman, Adv. Mater. 17, 614 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    K.L. Jiang, Q.Q. Li, S.S. Fan, Nature 419, 801 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    M. Zhang, S. Fang, A.A. Zakhidov, S.B. Lee, A.E. Aliev, C.D. Williams, K.R. Atkinson, R.H. Baughman, Science 309, 1215 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    M. Zhang, K.R. Atkinson, R.H. Baughman, Science 306, 1358 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Y. Zhang, S.J. Park, Carbon 122, 287 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    C. Feng, K. Liu, J.S. Wu, L. Liu, J.S. Cheng, Y.Y. Zhang, Y.H. Sun, Q.Q. Li, S.S. Fan, K.L. Jiang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 20, 885 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Y.H. Sun, K. Liu, J. Miao, Z. Wang, B. Tian, L. Zhang, Q. Li, S. Fan, K. Jiang, Nano Lett. 10, 1747 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Y. Zhang, S.J. Park, J. Catal. 355, 1 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    L.X. Zheng, M.J. O’Connell, S.K. Doorn, X.Z. Liao, Y.H. Zhao, E.A. Akhadov, M.A. Hoffbauer, B. Roop, Q.X. Jia, R.C. Dye, D.E. Peterson, S.M. Huang, J. Liu, Y.T. Zhu, Nat. Mater. 3, 673 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    X.F. Zhang, Q.W. Li, T.G. Holesinger, P.N. Arendt, J. Huang, P.D. Kirven, T.G. Clapp, R.F. DePaula, X. Liao, Y. Zhao, L. Zheng, D.E. Peterson, Y.T. Zhu, Adv. Mater. 19, 4198 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    X.F. Zhang, Q.W. Li, Y. Tu, Y. Li, J.Y. Coulter, L.X. Zheng, Y.H. Zhao, Q.X. Jia, D.E. Peterson, Y.T. Zhu, Small 3, 244 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Q.W. Li, X.F. Zhang, R.F. DePaula, L.X. Zheng, Y.H. Zhao, L. Stan, T.G. Holesinger, P.N. Arendt, D.E. Peterson, Y.T. Zhu, Adv. Mater. 18, 3160 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    N.K. Mehra, V. Mishra, N.K. Jain, Biomaterials 35, 1267 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Z.Y. Zhan, Y.N. Zhang, G.Z. Sun, L.X. Zheng, K. Liao, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 7704 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    L. Zheng, B.C. Satishkumar, P.Q. Gao, Q. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. C 113, 10896 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    S.K. Doorn, L.X. Zheng, M.J. O’Connell, Y.T. Zhu, S.M. Huang, J. Liu, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 3751 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    J.J. Jia, J.N. Zhao, G. Xu, Carbon 49, 1333 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    X.B. Zhang, K.L. Jiang, C. Feng, Adv. Mater. 18, 1505 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Y. Wei, K.L. Jiang, X.F. Feng, Phys. Rev. B. 76, 7 (2007)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    V.K. Rangari, M. Yousuf, S. Jeelani, M.X. Pulikkathara, V.N. Khabashesku, Nanotechnology 19, 245703 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    L.J. Lanticse, Y. Tanabe, K. Matsui, Carbon 44, 3078 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    H.H. Gommans, J.W. Alldredge, H. Tashiro, J. Park, J. Magnuson, A.G. Rinzler, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 2509 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    V. Pichot, M. Burghammer, S. Badaire, Europhys. Lett. 79, 46002 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    L.X. Zheng, G.Z. Sun, Z.Y. Zhan, Small 6, 132 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    T.W. Chou, A. Kelly, A. Okura, Composites 16, 187 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    K.S. Novoselov et al., Science 306, 666 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    A.K. Geim, Science 324, 1530 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    C.N.R. Rao et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48, 7752 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    L.Q. Liu, W.J. Ma, Z. Zhang, Small 7, 1504 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    W. Lu et al., Adv. Mater. 24, 1805 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    N. Behabtu et al., Science 339, 182 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    N. Behabtu, M.J. Green, M. Pasquali, Nano Today 3, 24 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Z. Xu, C. Gao, Nat. Commun. 2, 571 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Z. Xu, C. Gao, Acc. Chem. Res. 47, 1267 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Y. Zhang, K. Rhee, D. Hui, S.J. Park, Compos. B Eng. 143, 19 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    A.J. Rodriguez, M.E. Guzman, C.S. Lim, B. Minaie, Carbon 49, 937 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Y. Zhang, S.J. Park, J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Phys. 55, 1890 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    K. Rhee, S.J. Park, D. Hui, Y. Qiu, Comp. Part B 43, 2395 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    S.J. Park, B.J. Kim, Mater. Sci. Eng., A 408, 269 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    G.Y. Heo, Y.J. Yoo, S.J. Park, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 19, 1040 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    L.Y. Meng, S.J. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 640 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    S.Y. Lee, S.J. Park, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 389, 230 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    L.Y. Meng, K.Y. Rhee, S.J. Park, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20, 1672 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    S.Y. Lee, S.J. Park, Carbon 68, 112 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    J.R. Choi, Y.S. Lee, S.J. Park, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 20, 3421 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    M. Li, H. Liu, Y. Gu, Y. Li, Z. Zhang, Appl. Surface Sci. 288, 666 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    S.J. Park, Y.S. Jang, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 237, 91 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Y.L. Yang, M.C. Gupta, K.L. Dudley, R.W. Lawrence, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 5, 927 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    J. Joo, A.J. Epstein, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2278 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Y.L. Yang, M.C. Gupta, K.L. Dudley, R.W. Lawrence, Adv. Mater. 17, 1999 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    S. Kim, S.J. Park, J. Electrochim, Acta 53, 4082 (2008)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    B.J. Kim, W.K. Choi, H.S. Song, J.K. Park, J.Y. Lee, S.J. Park, Carbon Lett. 9, 105 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    S.J. Park, B.J. Kim, Y.S. Lee, M.J. Cho, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33, 1706 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    S. Lee, J. Kim, B.C. Ku, Y. Chung, Carbon Lett. 12, 26 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    C.S. Ramesh, H. Adarsha, S. Pramod, Z. Khan, Mater. Design 50, 597 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    S.M. Goushegir, J.F. dos Santos, S.T. Amancio-Filho, Mater. Design 54, 196 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    S. Tengsuwan, M. Ohshima, J. Supercritical Fluids 85, 123 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    B.J. Kim, W.K. Choi, K.M. Bae, C.W. Moon, H.S. Song, J.K. Park, J.Y. Lee, S.S. Im, S.J. Park, Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 32, 1630 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    S. Lee, J. Kim, B.C. Ku, J. Kim, Y. Chung, Carbon Lett. 12, 26 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    S. Abraham, B.C. Pai, K.G. Satyanarayana, V.K. Vaidyan, J. Mater. Sci. 25, 2839 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    B.J. Kim, W.K. Choi, M.K. Um, S.J. Park, Surf. Coat. Tech. 205, 3416 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    S. Shaikh, K. Lafdi, Carbon 48, 813 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    C.T. Hsieh, W.Y. Chen, Carbon 48, 612 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    T.Q. Li, Z.H. Xu, Z.J. Hu, X.G. Yang, Carbon 48, 924 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    K.S. Kim, K.Y. Rhee, K.H. Lee, J.H. Byun, S.J. Park, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. 16, 572 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    D.H. Lee, J.E. Kim, T.H. Han, J.W. Hwang, S. Jeon, S.Y. Choi, S.H. Hong, W.J. Lee, R.S. Ruoff, S.O. Kim, Adv. Mater. 22, 1 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    J.Y. Gu, K.X. Li, J. Wang, H.W. He, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 131, 393 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    P. Li, T. Li, J.H. Zhou, Z.J. Sui, Y.C. Dai, W.K. Yuan, D. Chen, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 95, 1 (2006)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    L.Y. Meng, C.W. Moon, S.S. Im, K.H. Lee, J.H. Byun, S.J. Park, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 142, 26 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    L.Y. Meng, S.J. Park, Mater. Chem. Phys. 132, 324 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    L.Y. Meng, S.J. Park, Curr. Appl. Phys. 13, 640 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    S. Rahmanian, A.R. Suraya, R. Zahari, E.S. Zainudin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 271, 424 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    C.A. Dyke, Z. Ophir, J. Appl. Phys. 113, 024313 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    X. Liu, X. Yin, L. Kong, Q. Li, Y. Liu, W. Duan, L. Zhang, L. Cheng, Carbon 68, 501 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    L. Zeng, W. Wang, D. Lei, J. Liang, Y. Xia, H. Zhao, X. Kong, Carbon 46, 359 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    S. Lim, S.H. Yoon, Y. Shimizu, H. Jung, I. Mochida, Langmuir 20, 5559 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    N. Sonoyama, M. Ohshita, A. Nijubu, H. Nishikawa, H. Yanase, H. Hayashi, T. Chiba, Carbon 44, 1754 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    B.J. Kim, S.J. Park, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 315, 791 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    R.B. Mathur, S. Chatterjee, B.P. Singh, Compos. Sci. Technol. 68, 1608 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    S.S. Tzeng, K.H. Hung, T.H. Ko, Carbon 44, 859 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    P.H. Maheshwari, R.B. Mathur, Electrochim. Acta 54, 7476 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    L. Zeng, W. Wang, D. Lei, J. Liang, H. Zhao, J. Zhao, X. Kong, Phys. B 403, 2662 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    C.T. Hsieh, W.Y. Chen, F.L. Wu, Carbon 46, 1218 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    D. Sebastian, I. Suelves, R. Moliner, M.J. Lazaro, Carbon 48, 4421 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    D. Sebastian, I. Suelves, M.J. Lazaro, R. Moliner, J. Power Sources 192, 51 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    S. Takenaka, S. Kobayashi, H. Ogihara, K. Otsuka, J. Catal. 217, 79 (2003)Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Y.F. Guan, R.C. Pearce, A.V. Melechko, D.K. Hensley, M.L. Simpson, P.D. Rack, Nanotechnology 19, 235604 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    X. Sun, B. Stansfield, J.P. Dodelet, S. Desilets, Chem. Phys. Lett. 363, 415 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    S. Morgan, R. Mokaya, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 15157 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    D. Barreca, W.J. Blau, G.M. Croke, F.A. Deeney, F.C. Dillon, J.D. Holmes, C. Kufazvinei, M.A. Morris, T.R. Spalding, E. Tondello, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 103, 142 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    F. Zheng, L. Liang, Y. Gao, J.H. Sukamto, C.L. Aardahl, Nano Lett. 2, 729 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    S.J. Park, J.S. Shin, J.W. Shim, S.K. Ryu, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 275, 342 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Q. Luo, H. Zhu, Y. Zhou, G. Zheng, D. Zhao, J. Mater. Chem. 11, 2934 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    J.T. Feng, Y.J. Lin, D.G. Evans, X. Duan, D.Q. Li, J. Catal. 266, 351 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    B.J. Kim, Y.S. Lee, S.J. Park, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 33, 4112 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    A.B. Gacia, I. Camean, I. Suelves, J.L. Pinilla, M.L. Lazaro, J.M. Palacios, R. Moliner, Carbon 47, 2563 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    B.J. Kim, S.J. Park, Nanotechnology 17, 4395 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    J.L. Pinilla, I. Suelves, M.J. Lazaro, R. Moliner, J.M. Palacios, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 35, 9801 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    R. Blossey, Nat. Mater. 2, 301 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    L.Y. Meng, S.J. Park, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 342, 559 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    L.Y. Meng, S.J. Park, Macromol. Res. 19, 209 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    J. Qu, L. He, Carbonhyd. Polym. 98, 1056 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    W.K. Cho, S.J. Park, S.Y. Jon, I.S. Choi, Nanotechnology 18, 395602 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryInha UniversityIncheonKorea (Republic of)

Personalised recommendations