Advertisement

Tourism, a Place-Based Activity

  • João Romão
Chapter
Part of the New Frontiers in Regional Science: Asian Perspectives book series (NFRSASIPER, volume 28)

Abstract

The uniqueness of natural and cultural features constitutes a central aspect for a strategy of destination differentiation in contemporary tourism, requiring particular care, planning, and monitoring processes when integrated into products and services. This chapter analyzes the potential contribution of these sensitive resources for local sustainable development processes, along with a discussion on the potential negative impacts exerted by tourism activities. This can be observed for the possible degradation or destruction of natural resources and ecosystems and also when looking at questions related to the uniqueness, authenticity, and evolving character of local cultural heritage, taking into account the different perceptions, backgrounds, and motivations of each individual (resident or tourist), which implies a permanent process of negotiation between different perspectives and eventually conflictual values. In the context of tourism, the importance of interpretation is emphasized, as a tool to ensure the (co-)creation of different types of significant experiences for different types of tourists, stressing the importance of market segmentation processes as a complement to the strategies of territorial differentiation based on local uniqueness. The sensitiveness of these resources and their importance as structural aspects of the daily life of residents and local identities reinforce the importance of community involvement and participatory decision-making mechanisms for the management of natural and cultural resources in tourism activities.

Keywords

Natural resources Sustainable tourism Heritage tourism Significance Differentiation Segmentation 

References

  1. Apostolakis A (2003) The convergence process in heritage tourism. Ann Tour Res 30(4):795–812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armario ME (2008) Tourist satisfaction: an analysis of its antecedents. Asociación Española de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa 17:367–382Google Scholar
  3. Bandarin F (2005) Foreword. In: Harrison D, Hitchcock M (eds) The politics of world heritage: negotiating tourism and conservation. Channel View Publications, Clevelon, pp 5–6Google Scholar
  4. Bansal HS, Eiselt H (2004) Exploratory research of tourist motivations and planning. Tour Manag 25:387–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bimonte S, Punzo L (2016) Tourist development and host-guest interaction: an economic exchange theory. Ann Tour Res 58:128–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buhalis D (1999) Limits of tourism development in peripheral destinations: problems and challenges. Tour Manag 20:183–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buhalis D (2000) Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tour Manag 21:97–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butler R (1980) The concept of a tourism area life cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources. Can Geogr 24(1):5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butler R (1999) Sustainable tourism: a state-of-the-art review. Tour Geogr 1(1):7–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler R (2015) The evolution of tourism and tourism research. Tour Recreat Res 40(1):16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Castro C, Armario E, Ruiz D (2007) The influence of market heterogeneity on the relationship between a destination’s image and tourists’ future behavior. Tour Manag 28:175–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambers E (2009) From authenticity to significance: tourism on the frontier of culture and place. Futures 41:353–359CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen C, Tsai D (2007) How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions? Tour Manag 28:1115–1122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chi C, Qu H (2008) Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty: an integrated approach. Tour Manag 29:624–636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen E (1979) A phenomenology of tourist experiences. Sociology 13:179–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cohen E (1988) Authenticity and commoditization in tourism. Ann Tour Res 15:371–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crompton J. (1979) Motivations for pleasure vacations. Annals of Tourism Research VI(4):408–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dann G (1981) Tourist motivation: an appraisal. Annals of Tourism Research VIII(2):187–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Douglas JA (2014) What's political ecology got to do with tourism? Tour Geogr 16(1):8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Doxey G (1975) A causation theory of visitor-resident irritants: methodology and research inferences. Proceedings of the 6th annual conference of the travel and tourism research association. In: San Diego. Travel and Tourism Research Association, WhitehallGoogle Scholar
  21. Evans G (2005) Mundo Maya: from Cancún to City of culture. World heritage in post-colonial Mesoamerica. In: Harrison D, Hitchcock M (eds) The politics of world heritage: negotiating tourism and conservation. Channel View Publications, Clevelon, pp 35–49Google Scholar
  22. Fusco-Girard L, Nijkamp P (2009) Cultural tourism and sustainable local development. Ashgate, AldershotGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilbert EW (1939) The growth of inland and seaside resorts health resorts in England. Scott Geogr Mag 55:16–35Google Scholar
  24. Graburn N (1995) The past in the present in Japan: nostalgia and neo-traditionalism in contemporary Japanese domestic tourism. In: Butler R, Pearce D (eds) Change in tourism people, places processes. Routledge, London, pp 47–70Google Scholar
  25. Harrison D (2005) Contested narratives in the domain of world heritage. In: Harrison D, Hitchcock M (eds) The politics of world heritage: negotiating tourism and conservation. Channel View Publications, Clevelon, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  26. Hassan S (2000) Determinants of market competitiveness in an environmentally sustainable tourism industry. J Travel Res 38(3):239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ICOMOS (1965) International charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites (The Venice Charter). Adopted in the 2nd International Congress of Architects and Technicians of Historic Monuments, VeniceGoogle Scholar
  28. ICOMOS (1999) International cultural tourism charter: managing tourism at places of heritage significance. Adopted at the 12th General Assembly of ICOMOS, Mexico CityGoogle Scholar
  29. ICOMOS (2005) Xi’An declaration on the conservation of the settings of heritage structures. Adopted by the 15th General Assembly of ICOMOS, Xi’anGoogle Scholar
  30. ICOMOS (2008a) The ICOMOS charter for the interpretation and presentation of cultural heritage sites. Ratified by the 16th General Assembly of ICOMOS, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  31. ICOMOS (2008b) The ICOMOS charter on cultural routes. Ratified by the 16th General Assembly of ICOMOS, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  32. Iso-Ahola S (1989) Motivation for leisure. In: Jackson EL, Burton TL (eds) Mapping the past, charting the future. Venture Press, Pennsylvania, pp 247–279Google Scholar
  33. Jovicic DZ (2014) Key issues in the implementation of sustainable tourism. Curr Issue Tour 17(4):297–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kozak M, Rimmington M (2000) Tourist satisfaction with Mallorca, Spain, as an off-season holiday destination. J Travel Res 38:260–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Laing J, Voigt C, Frost W (2013) Fantasy, authenticity and the spa tourism experience. In: Voigt C, Pforr C (eds) Wellness tourism. Routledge, London, pp 220–234Google Scholar
  36. Lee T (2009) A structural model to examine how destination image, attitude, and motivation affect the future behavior of tourists. Leis Sci 31:215–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. MacCannell D (1973) Staged authenticity: arrangements of social space in tourist settings. Am J Sociol 79(3):589–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maslow AH (1943) A theory of human motivation. Psychol Rev 50(4):370–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matias A, Nijkamp P, Neto P (2007) Advances in modern tourism research. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Meinecke EP (1929) The effect of excessive tourist travel on California redwood parks. California State Printing Office, SacramentoGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller G, Twining-Ward L (2005) Monitoring for a sustainable tourism transition: the challenge of developing and using indicators. CABI Publishing, OxfordshireCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. OECD (2009) The impact of culture on tourism. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  43. OECD (2014) Tourism and the creative economy. OECD, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Oppermann M (2000) Tourism destination loyalty. J Travel Res 39:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (ORRRC) (1962) Report of the ORRRC vols 1–27. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  46. Page SJ, Dowling RK (2002) Ecotourism. Prentice Hall, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  47. Patmore J (1968) The Spa towns of England and Wales. In: Beckinsale G (ed) Problems of urbanisation. Methuen, London, pp 168–194Google Scholar
  48. Pearce PL (1996) Recent research in tourists’ behaviour. Asia Pacific J Tour Res 1(1):7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Poon A (1994) The ‘new tourism’ revolution. Tour Manag 15(2):91–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Poria Y, Butler R, Airey D (2001) Clarifying heritage tourism. Ann Tour Res 28(4):1047–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Poria Y, Butler R, Airey D (2003) The core of heritage tourism. Ann Tour Res 30(1):238–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Poria Y, Reichel A, Biran A (2006) Heritage site perceptions and motivations to visit. J Travel Res 44:318–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poria Y, Biran A, Reichel A (2009) Visitors’ preferences for interpretation at heritage sites. J Travel Res 48(1):92–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Porter M (1985) Competitive advantage – creating and sustaining superior performance. The Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  55. Ritchie J, Crouch G (2003) The competitive destination: a sustainable tourism perspective. CABI International, OxfordshireCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Romão J (2015) Culture or Nature: a space-time analysis on the determinants of tourism demand in European regions. Discussion Papers Spatial and Organizational Dynamics 14Google Scholar
  57. Romão J, Neuts B, Nijkamp P, Shikida A (2014) Determinants of trip choice, satisfaction and loyalty in an eco-tourism destination: a modeling study on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Japan. Ecol Econ 107:195–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Romão J, Neuts B, Nijkamp P, van LES (2015) Culture, product differentiation and market segmentation: a structural analysis of the motivation and satisfaction of tourists in Amsterdam. Tour Econ 21(3):455–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Romão J, Guerreiro J, Rodrigues PMM (2017) Territory and sustainable tourism development: a space-time analysis on European regions. Region 4(3):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Scott AJ (2007) Capitalism and urbanization in a new key? The cognitive-cultural dimension. Social Forces 85(4):1465–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sharpley R (2009) Tourism development and the environment: beyond sustainability? Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Stansfield CA (1972) The development of modern seaside resorts. Park Recreat 5(10):14–46Google Scholar
  63. Timothy DJ, Boyd SW (2003) Heritage tourism. Prentice Hall, HarlowGoogle Scholar
  64. Tussyadiah IP (2014) Toward a theoretical foundation for experience design in tourism. J Travel Res 53(5):543–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. UNESCO (2001) Universal declaration on cultural diversity. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  66. UNESCO (2003) Convention for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. UNESCO, ParisGoogle Scholar
  67. UNWTO (2001) Global code of ethics for tourism. UNWTO, MadridGoogle Scholar
  68. UNWTO (2003) Study on tourism and intangible cultural heritage. UNWTO, MadridGoogle Scholar
  69. Wagar J (1964) The carrying capacity of wildlands for recreation forest science, Monograph No. 7. Society of American Foresters, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  70. Wait G (2000) Consuming heritage – perceived historical authenticity. Ann Tour Res 27(4):835–862CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wall G, Mathieson A (2006) Tourism: change, impacts and opportunities. Pearson, EssexGoogle Scholar
  72. Walton JK (2013) Health, sociability, politics and culture – spas in history, spas and history: an overview. In: Walton JK (ed) Mineral springs resorts in global perspective. Routledge, London, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  73. Wang N (1999) Rethinking authenticity in tourism experience. Ann Tour Res 26(2):349–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weaver D (2006) Sustainable tourism: theory and practice. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  75. Weaver D (2011) Can sustainable tourism survive climate change? J Sustain Tour 19(1):5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Williams P, Ponsford I (2009) Confronting tourism’s environmental paradox: transitioning for sustainable tourism. Futures 41:396–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. World Commission on Environment and Development (1987) Our common future. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  78. Yoon Y, Uysal M (2005) An examination of the effects of motivation and satisfaction on destination loyalty: a structural model. Tour Manag 26:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • João Romão
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Advanced Studies in Management and EconomicsUniversity of AlgarveFaroPortugal
  2. 2.Regional Economics and Business NetworkHokkaido UniversitySapporoJapan

Personalised recommendations