Advertisement

Professionalism by Whose Model? Professionalism and Professionalization of TESOL Teachers Through Autonomy or Accountability

  • Steven James KurowskiEmail author
Chapter
Part of the English Language Education book series (ELED, volume 15)

Abstract

Professionalism is as well-defined colloquially as it is sociologically through a public (i.e., field) discourse which seems to have moved on from the sociological dialog existentializing professionalism to recognizing the term as a political construct. Advantages are accrued to those considered to be on the certified end of the spectrum of professionalism. While many consider TESOL to be a professional field, assuming professionalism by virtue of the emic perception of the work may be, etically speaking (Pike, Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human behavior. Glendale, CA: Summer Institute of Linguistics, 1954.), inexpedient, leading to a generalized assumption of status, autonomy, and ethics but, more specifically, to a managerialized form of these determined by individual employment contexts. This small-scale interpretive study explores how eight TESOL teachers in an Omani university substantiate a managerialized form of professionalism as they did not appear to employ authentic autonomy in their practice, though other important elements, such as rigorous training and qualifications, were evidenced. Participant autonomy is prescribed and controlled through management and government intervention showing a de-professionalization of teaching in general and TESOL in particular. While TESOL can be said to be professionalizing, it is important for the profession to develop not only the stomach but also the teeth of professionalism if TESOL “professionals” are to lose their quotation marks to become professionals in the authentic sense.

Keywords

Professionalism Professionalization Authentic Managerialization TESOL Autonomy 

References

  1. Altalis, J. (1987). The growth of professionalism in TESOL: Challenges and prospects for the future. TESOL Quarterly, 21(1), 9–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Assaf, L. (2008). Professional identity of a reading teacher: Responding to high-stakes testing pressures. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 14(3), 239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ball, S. J. (2005). Education reform as social barbarism: Economism and the end of authenticity (The SERA Lecture 2004). Scottish Educational Review, 37(1), 4–16.Google Scholar
  4. Bartels, N. (2002). Professional preparation and action research. Only for language teachers. TESOL Quarterly, 36(1), 71–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bodman, S., Taylor, S., & Morris, H. (2012). Politics policy and professional identity. English Teaching, Practice and Critique, 11(3), 14–25.Google Scholar
  6. Boote, D. (2006). Teachers’ professional discretion and the curricula. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 12(4), 461–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bottery, M. (1997). Teacher professionalization through action research: Possibility or pipe dream? Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 3(2), 273–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bottery, M., & Wright, N. (2000). The directed profession: Teachers and the state in the third millennium. Journal of In-Service Education, 26(3), 475–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bustingorry, S. (2008). Towards teachers’ professional autonomy through action research. Educational Action Research, 16(3), 407–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Canagarajah, A. S. (2012). Teacher development in a global profession: An autoethnography. TESOL Quarterly, 46(2), 258–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2011). Research methods in education (7th ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Colley, H., James, D., & Diment, K. (2007). Unbecoming teachers: Towards a more dynamic notion of professional participation. Journal of Education Policy, 22(2), 173–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crandall, J. (1993). Professionalism and professionalization of adult ESL literacy. TESOL Quarterly, 27(3), 497–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crotty, M. (2011). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspective in the research process. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Corrigan, D. C., & Haberman, M. (1990). The context of teacher education. In W.R. Houston (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp.195–211). New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Day, C., & Sachs, J. (2004). Professionalism, performativity and empowerment: Discourses in the politics, policies and purposes of continuing professional development. In C. Day & J. Sachs (Eds.), International handbook on the continuing professional development of teachers (pp. 3–32). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Dent, M., & Whitehead, S. (2003). Managing professional identities: Knowledge, performativity and the ‘new’ professional. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Dhillon, R. H., Jeens, D., Merrick, S., O’Brien, J., Siddons, N., Smith, R., & Wilkins, S. (2011). SfL ‘professionalism’ and CPD: Insights from practitioners. Journal of Educational Administration and History, 43(1), 61–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donaghue, H., & Dolci, I. (2013). Professional teaching portfolios. TESOL Arabia Perspectives, 21(2), 13–17.Google Scholar
  20. Douglas, J. (1985). Creative interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, L. (2008). Professionalism, professionality and the development of education professionals. British Journal of Educational Studies, 56(1), 20–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Evans, L. (2010). Professionals or technicians? Teacher preparation programs and occupational understandings. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 16(2), 183–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Evetts, J. (2005). The management of professionalism. A contemporary paradox. Current Sociology, 59(4), 20–38.Google Scholar
  24. Farmer, F. (2006). Accountable professional practice in ELT. ELT Journal, 60(2), 160–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Farrell, T. (2014). ‘I feel like I’ve plateaued professionally… gone a little stale.’ Mid-career reflections in a teacher discussion group. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 15(4), 504–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fournier, V. (1999). The appeal to ‘professionalism’ as a disciplinary mechanism. Social Review, 47(2), 280–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Freidson, E. (2001). Professionalism. The third logic. London: Polity.Google Scholar
  28. Gamble, J. (2010). Teacher professionalism. A literature review. Johannesburg, South Africa: Mimeo/JET Education Services.Google Scholar
  29. Gartmeier, M., Bauer, J., Gruber, H., & Heid, H. (2008). Negative knowledge. Understanding professional learning and expertise. Vocations and Learning, 1, 87–103.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12186-008-9006-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Glaser, G. B., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory. Chicago: Aldane.Google Scholar
  31. Gray, S. L., & Whitty, G. (2010). Social trajectories or disrupted identities: Changing and competing models of teacher professionalism. Cambridge Journal of Education, 40(1), 5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hardy, I., & Melville, W. (2013). Contesting continuing professional development: Reflections from England. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 19(3), 311–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hextall, I., Cribb, A., Gewirtz, S., Mahony, P., & Troman, G. (2007). Changing teacher roles, identities and professionalism. An annotated bibliography. London. King’s College/Roehampton University.Google Scholar
  34. Hoban, G., & Erickson, G. (2004). Dimensions of learning for long-term professional development. Comparing approaches from education, business and medical contexts. Journal of In-Service Education, 30(2), 301–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hsieh, B. (2014). The importance of orientation. Implications of professional identity on classroom practice and for professional learning, teachers and teaching. Theory and Practice, 21(2), 178–190.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2014.928133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hulme, M., & Menter, I. (2014). New professionalism in austere times: The employment experiences of early career teachers in Scotland. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 20(6), 672–687.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13540602.2014.885707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ioannidis, J. P. (2005). Why most published research findings are false. Public Library of Science Medicine, 2(8), e124.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0020124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kennedy, A., Barlow, W., & MacGregor, J. (2012). Advancing professionalism in teaching: An exploration of the mobilisation of the concept of professionalism in the McCormac report on the review of teacher employment in Scotland. Scottish Education Review, 44(2), 3–13.Google Scholar
  39. Khalili, H., Hall, J., & DeLuca, S. (2014). Historical analysis of professionalism in western societies: Implications for interprofessional education and collaborative practice. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(2), 92–97.  https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2013.869197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koster, B., Dengerink, J., Korthagen, F., & Lunenberg, M. (2008). Teacher educators working on their own professional development: Goals, activities and outcomes of a project for the professional development of teacher educators. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 14(5/6), 567–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Little, J. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers professional relations. Teachers College Record, 91(4), 509–536.Google Scholar
  42. Liu, J. (1999). Nonnative-English-speaking professionals in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 33(1), 85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lorimer, C., & Schulte, J. (2012). Reimagining TESOL professionalism. The graduate student perspective. The CATESOL Journal, 23(1), 31–44.Google Scholar
  44. Lyons, N. (2006). Reflective engagement as professional development in the lives of university teachers. Teachers and Teaching. Theory and Practice, 12(2), 151–168.Google Scholar
  45. MacPherson, S., Kouritzin, S., & Kim, S. H. (2005). Profits or professionalism: Issues facing the professionalization of TESL in Canada. College Quarterly, 8(2.) Retrieved from http.//www.collegequarterly.ca/2005-vol08-num02-spring/macpherson_kouritzin_kim.html
  46. Marckwardt, A. (1972). Changing winds and shifting sands. MST English Quarterly, 21, 3–11.Google Scholar
  47. Menter, I. (2009). Teachers for the future. In S. Gewirtz, P. Mahony, I. Hextall, & A. Cribb (Eds.), Changing teacher professionalism: International trends, challenges, and ways forward (pp. 218–228). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Oder, T. (2008). The professional foreign language teacher in Estonia: Students’ and principals’ perceptions. Teacher Development: An International Journal of Teachers’ Professional Development, 12(3), 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Patrick, F., Forde, C., & McPhee, A. (2003). Challenging the new professionalism. From managerialism to pedagogy. Journal of In-Service Education, 29(2), 237–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Pike, K. L. (1954). Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human behavior. Glendale, CA: Summer Institute of Linguistics.Google Scholar
  52. Power, M. (1997). The audit society: Rituals of verification. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Pring, R. (2000). Philosophy of educational research (2nd ed.). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  54. Ritzer, G. (1975). Professionalization bureaucratization and rationalization. The views of max weber. Social Forces, 53(4), 627–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ryan, R., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and Well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 627–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sachs, J. (2001). Teacher professional identity: Competing discourses competing outcomes. Journal of Education Policy, 16(2), 149–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Strathem, M. (2000). New accountabilities: Anthropological studies in audit, ethics and the academy. In M. Strathern (Ed.), Audit cultures: Anthropological studies in audit, ethics and accountability. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Troman, G. (1996). The rise of the new professionals: The restructuring of primary teachers’ work and professionalism. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 17(4), 473–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Whitty, G. (2008). Changing modes of teacher professionalism: Traditional, managerial, collaborative and democratic. In B. Cunningham (Ed.), Exploring professionalism (pp. 28–49). London: University of London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of ExeterExeterUK

Personalised recommendations