• Hitoshi IbaEmail author


This chapter concludes the book with some summaries and ideas about evolution. As we have seen in the previous chapters, we can use evolutionary mechanisms mainly for designing desirable structures, not for the pure purpose of optimization. This is a common confusion of the fact of evolution being progress. Evolution is a constructer of better building blocks, not a optimizer of a simple solution. This is known as the concept of “Punctuated Equilibrium.”


Optimization versus evolution Punctuated equilibrium Stephen. J. Gould Niles Eldredge Ultra-Darwinists Selfish genes Richard Dawkins 


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    Dawkins, R.: A Devil’s Chaplain: Reflections on Hope, Lies, Science, and Love. Mariner Books, Boston (2004)Google Scholar
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    Eldredge, N.: Reinventing Darwin: The Great Debate at the High Table of Evolutionary Theory. Wiley, New York (1995)Google Scholar

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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The University of TokyoTokyoJapan

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