Advertisement

Dynamic Flow Characteristics of Liquefied Sand Under the Extrema Large Deformation in the Cyclic Torsional Shear Tests

  • Haiyang Zhuang
  • Qifei Liu
  • Xuchao Xue
  • Guoxing Chen
Conference paper

Abstract

The dynamic flow deformation of liquefied saturated sand may cause serious damages to the ground and underground structures. However, to investigate the static fluid characteristics of the post-liquefied saturated sand, most studies on this problem have applied the cyclic loading to the saturated sand samples first, and then used the monotonic loading. The above test loading process is different from the actual stress state of soil in site. To investigate the dynamic flow characteristics of the liquefied saturated Nanjing sand under the cyclic loading, a series of undrained cyclic torsional shear tests are performed by using the hollow column torsional shear apparatus, with the largest shear strain up to 100%. At the same time, different effective confining pressure, initial shear stress and cyclic loading amplitude are loaded on the soil samples respectively. It is found that the soil sample has been in shear dilation state at the end of “zero effective stress” stage which is only determined by the excess pore pressure ratio. In other words, the response of excess pore pressure should be hysteretic to the shear dilation of the samples. It also proves that the initial shear stress should have the greatest influence on the relationship curves of the apparent viscosity-strain rate and the shear strain rate in the “zero effective stress” stage. Meanwhile, the dynamic apparent viscosity of sand in the “zero effective stress” stage under the cyclic loading is larger than the static apparent viscosity of post-liquefied sand when the shear strain rate reaches a relatively small value. Based on the test results, the dynamic apparent viscosity of liquefied sand should not be predicted by the empirical equation derived from the static fluid characteristics of the post-liquefied saturated sand.

Keywords

Liquefaction flow deformation Initial shear stress Effective confining pressure Loading amplitude Torsional shear test 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The study on which the paper is based was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (51778290, 51278246). The authors wish to gratefully acknowledge these supports.

References

  1. Andrianopoulos, K.I., Papadimitriou, A.G., Bouckovalas, G.D.: Explicit integration of bounding surface model for the analysis of earthquake soil liquefaction. Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech. 34(15), 1586–1614 (2010)Google Scholar
  2. Chen, J., O-tani, H., Hori, M.: Stability analysis of soil liquefaction using a finite element method based on particle discretization scheme. Comput. Geotech. 67, 64–72 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen, W.H.: Flow-slip deformations induced by seismic liquefaction and preliminary test results. J. Nat. Disasters 13(3), 75–80 (2004)Google Scholar
  4. Chen, Y.M., Liu, H.L., Shan, G.J., et al.: Liquefaction and post-liquefaction flow behavior of sand. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 31(9), 1408–1413 (2009)Google Scholar
  5. Hamada, M., Yasuda, S., Isoyama, R., et al.: Observation of permanent displacements induced by soil liquefaction. Proc. JSCE 3(6), 211–220 (1986)Google Scholar
  6. Hamada, M., Sato, H., Kawakami, T., et al.: A consideration of the mechanism for liquefaction-related large ground displacement. In: Proceedings of the 5th US–Japan Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline Facilities and Countermeasures Against Soil Liquefaction, Salt Lake City, pp. 217–232 (1994)Google Scholar
  7. Kawakami, T., Suemasa, N., Hamada, M., et al.: Experimental study on mechanical properties of liquefied sand. In: Proceedings of the 5th US–Japan Workshop on Earthquake Resistant Design of Lifeline Facilities and Countermeasures Against Soil Liquefaction, Salt Lake City, pp. 285–299 (1994)Google Scholar
  8. Miyajima, M., Kitaura, M., Koike, T., et al.: Experimental study on characteristics of liquefied ground flow. In: The First International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Balkema, pp. 969–974 (1995)Google Scholar
  9. Seed, H.B., Idriss, I.M., Arango, I.: Evaluation of liquefaction potential using field performance data. J. Geotech. Eng. 3, 90–98 (1983)Google Scholar
  10. Shamy, U.E., Denissen, C.: Microscale characterization of energy dissipation mechanisms in liquefiable granular soils. Comput. Geotech. 37(7), 846–857 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Sasaki, Y., Towhata, I., Tokida, K.I., Yamada, K., et al.: Mechanism of permanent displacement of ground caused by liquefaction. Soils Found. 32(3), 79–96 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Takayasu, T., Aita, Y., Fukudome, T., et al.: Ground failure caused by the Nihonkai Chubu earthquake, 1983 in relation to subsurface geology. Memo. Geol. Soc. Jpn., 237–256 (1986)Google Scholar
  13. Wang, G., Xie, Y.N.: Modified bounding surface hyproplasticity model for sands under cyclic loading. J. Eng. Mech. 140(1), 91–101 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Wang, Z.H., Zhou, E.Q., Lv, C., et al.: Liquefaction mechanism of saturated gravelly soils based on flowing property. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 35(10), 1816–1822 (2013)Google Scholar
  15. Wu, H.R.: Study of Nanjing Sand Particle Shape and Static Liquefaction Characteristics. Nanjing University, Nanjing (2014)Google Scholar
  16. Xu, X.M.: The Study of Microscopic Mechanism of Saturated Sand Liquefaction Evaluation. Zhejiang University, Zhejiang (2012)Google Scholar
  17. Yang, Z.H., Elgamal, A., Parra, E.: Computational model for cyclic mobility and associated shear deformation. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 129(12), 1119–1127 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhou, E.Q., Wang, Z.H., Chen, G.X., et al.: Constitutive model for fluid of post-liquefied sand. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 37(1), 112–118 (2015)Google Scholar
  19. Zhuang, H.Y., Huang, C.X., Zuo, Y.F.: Sensitivity analysis of model parameters for predicting liquefied large deformation of sand. Chin. J. Rock Soil Mech. 33(1), 280–286 (2012)Google Scholar
  20. Zhuang, H.Y., Hu, Z.H., Wang, R., et al.: Cyclic torsional shear loading tests on extremely large post-liquefaction flow deformation of saturated Nanjing sand. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 38(12), 2164–2174 (2016)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haiyang Zhuang
    • 1
  • Qifei Liu
    • 1
  • Xuchao Xue
    • 1
  • Guoxing Chen
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Geotechnical EngineeringNanjing Tech UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations