Advertisement

Influence of Consolidation Pressure on Cyclic and Post-cyclic Response of Fine-Grained Soils with Varying Mineralogical Compositions and Plasticity Characteristics

  • Beena Ajmera
  • Binod Tiwari
  • Brian Yamashiro
  • Quoc-Hung Phan
Conference paper

Abstract

In this study, nine different soil samples with varying mineralogical compositions with a wide range of plasticity characteristics were consolidated to five different normal stresses prior to testing in the cyclic simple shear apparatus, where cyclic loading in the form of a sinusoidal wave form with a frequency of loading of 0.5 Hz and varying amplitudes was applied. The shear strength of the samples immediately after cyclic loading were also determined and compared to the static shear strength to determine the reduction in shear strength resulting from the cyclic loading. The results were used to determine the cyclic strength curves for each sample at 2.5%, 5%, and 10% double amplitude shear strain. These curves demonstrated that an increase in the consolidation pressure corresponded to an increase in the cyclic resistance. The post-cyclic undrained shear strength measurements suggested that an increase in the consolidation pressure would cause a lower reduction in undrained shear strength as a result of cyclic loading.

Keywords

Cyclic response Degradation ratio Cyclic mobility Post-cyclic behavior Cyclic simple shear 

References

  1. 1.
    Sangrey, D.A., France, J.W.: Peak strength of clay soils after a repeated loading history. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Soils Under Cyclic and Transient Loading, vol. 1, pp. 421–430 (1980)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bray, J.D., Sancio, R.B.: Assessment of the liquefaction susceptibility of fine-grained soil during the Loma Prieta earthquake. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 132(9), 1165–1177 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Guo, T., Prakash, S.: Liquefaction of silt and silt-clay mixtures. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 125(8), 706–710 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    El Hosri, M.S., Biarez, H., Hicher, P.Y.: Liquefaction characteristics of silty clay. In: Proceeding of Eighth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 277–284 (1984)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hyodo, M., Ito, S., Yamamoto, Y., Fujii, T.: Cyclic shear behaviour of marine clays. In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, vol. 2, pp. 606–611 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ishihara, K., Yasuda, S.: Cyclic strengths of undisturbed cohesive soils of Western Tokyo. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Soils under Cyclic and Transient Loading, pp. 57–66 (1980)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hyodo, M., Yamamoto, Y., Fujii T.: Cyclic shear failure and strength of undisturbed marine clays. In: Proceedings of the Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, vol. 1, pp. 567–563 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bray, J.D., Sancio, R.B., Riemer, M., Durgunohlu, H.T.: Liquefaction susceptibility of fine-grained soils. In: Proceedings of the International Conferences on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 655–662 (2004)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gratchev, I.B., Sassa, K., Fukuoka, H.: How reliable is the plasticity index for estimating the liquefaction potential of clayey sands? J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 132(1), 124–127 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andersen, K.H., Brown, S.F., Foss, I., Pool, J.H., Rosenbrand, W.F.: Effect of cyclic loading on clay behaviour. Norw. Geotech. Inst. Publ. 113, 1–6 (1976)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boulanger, R.W., Idriss, I.M.: Evaluation of cyclic softening in silts and clays. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 133(6), 641–652 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andersen, K.H.: Bearing capacity under cyclic loading-offshore, along the coast, and on land. The 21st Bjerrum Lecture presented in Oslo, 23 November 2007. Can. Geotech. J. 46, 513–535 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yasuhara, K., Murakami, S., Song, B., Seiji, Y., Hyde, A.F.L.: Postcyclic degradation of strength and stiffness for low plasticity silt. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 129(8), 485–488 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thammathiwat, A., Chim-oye, W.: Behavior of strength and pore pressure of soft Bangkok clay under cyclic loading. J. Sci. Technol. 9(4), 21–28 (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ding, J., Liu, H., Hu, L.: Response of marine clay to cyclic loading. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, pp. 1188–1192 (2007)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Orense, R.P., Altun, S., Ansal, A.: Cyclic shear behavior and seismic response of partially saturated slopes. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 42, 71–79 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nabeshima, Y., Matsui, T.: Role of plastic and non-plastic fines on cyclic shear behavior of saturated sands. In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, pp. 440–444 (2003)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chang, N.Y., Yeh, S.T., Kaufman, L.P.: Liquefaction potential of clay and silty sands. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 80–133 (1982)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dezfulian, H.: Effects of silt content on dynamic properties of sandy soil. In: Proceedings of the Eighth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, pp. 63–70 (1982)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Amini, F., Qi, G.Z.: Liquefaction testing of stratified silty sands. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 126(3), 208–217 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shen, C.K., Vrymoed, J.L., Uyeno, C.K.: The effects of fines on liquefaction of sands. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering, vol. 2, 99. 381–385 (1997)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Troncoso, J.H., Verdugo, R.: Silt content and dynamic behavior of tailings sand. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering, pp. 1311–1314 (1985)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Troncoso, J.H.: Failure risks of abandoned tailings dams. In: Proceedings of International Symposium on Safety and Rehabilitation of Tailings Dams, pp. 82–89 (1990)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Finn, W.D.L., Ledbetter, R.H., Wu, G.: Liquefaction in silty soils: design and analysis, vol. 44, pp. 17–33. Geotechnical Special Publication (1994)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vaid, V.P.: Liquefaction of silty sands, vol. 44, pp. 1–16. Geotechnical Special Publication (1994)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ajmera, B.: Factors influencing the post-earthquake shear strength. Ph.D. dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (2015)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ajmera, B., Brandon, T., Tiwari, B.: Effect of mineralogy on the post-earthquake shear strength of clay-like materials. Association of State Dam Safety Officials Dam Safety, vol. 1 (2014)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ajmera, B., Tiwari, B., Brandon, T.: Cyclic and post-cyclic behavior of clay-like materials. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Geo-Disaster Reduction, vol. 1, pp. 5–10 (2014)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ajmera, B., Brandon, T., Tiwari, B.: Cyclic strength of clay-like materials. In: Proceedings of Sixth International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering (2015)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ajmera, B., Tiwari, B., Brandon, T.: Influence of mineralogy and plasticity on the cyclic and post-cyclic behavior of normally consolidated soils. In: Proceedings of Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Congress, pp. 1522–1531 (2016)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ajmera, B., Tiwari, B.: Damping and shear moduli of laboratory prepared mineral mixtures. In: Proceedings of Geotechnical Frontiers Geotechnical Special Publication, vol. 281, pp. 10–18 (2017)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ajmera, B., Tiwari, B., Pandey, P.: Use of pore pressure response to determine shear strength degradation from cyclic loading. In: Proceedings of the Geotechnical Frontiers Geotechnical Special Publication, vol. 281, pp. 19–26 (2017)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ajmera, B., Brandon, T., Tiwari, B.: Influence of index properties on shape of cyclic strength curve for clay-silt mixtures. Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng. 102, 46–55 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuwano, J., Nukano, H., Sugihara, K., Yabe, H.: Factors affecting undrained cyclic strength of sand containing fines. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual Meeting of the Japanese Geotechnical Society, pp. 989–990 (1996)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Beroya, M.A.A., Aydin, A., Katzenbach, R.: Insight into the effects of clay mineralogy on the cyclic behavior of silt-clay mixtures. Eng. Geol. 106, 154–162 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Silver, M.L.: Laboratory triaxial testing procedures to determine the cyclic strength of soils. Report for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1977)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Silver, M.L., Chan, C.K., Ladd, R.S., Lee, K.L., Tiedemann, D.A., Townsend, F.C., Valera, J.E., Wilson, J.H.: Cyclic triaxial strength of standard test sand. J. Geotech. Eng. Div. 102(5), 511–523 (1976)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ozaydin, K., Erguvanli, A.: The generation of pore pressures in clayey soils during earthquakes. In: Proceedings of the Seventh World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, vol. 3, pp. 326–330 (1980)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lefebvre, G., LeBoeuf, D.: Rate effects and cyclic loading of sensitive clays. J. Geotech. Eng. 113(5), 476–489 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Koutsoftas, D.C.: Effect of cyclic loads on undrained strength of two marine clays. J. Geotech. Eng. Div. 104(5), 609–620 (1978)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Soroush, A., Soltani-Jigheh, H.: Pre- and post-cyclic behavior of mixed clayey soils. Can. Geotech. J. 46, 115–128 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yasuhara, K., Andersen, K.H.: Effect of cyclic loading on recompression of overconsolidated clay. In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering, vol. 1, pp. 485–488 (1989)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hannam, A.D., Javed, K.: Design of foundations on sensitive champlain clay subjected to cyclic loading. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 134(7), 929–937 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Brown, S.F., Lashine, A.K.F., Hyde, A.F.L.: Repeated load triaxial testing of a silty clay. Géotechnique 25(1), 95–114 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hashash, Y.M.A., Tiwari, B., Moss, R.E.S., Asimaki, D., Clahan, K., Kieffer, D.S., Dreger, D.S., Macdonald, A., Madugo, C.M., Mason, H.B., Pehlivan, M., Rayamajhi, D., Acharya, I., Adhikari, B.: Geotechnical field reconnaissance: Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake of April 25 2015 and related shaking sequence. Geotechnical extreme event reconnaissance. GEER Association Report No. GEER-40, ver. 1.1, 2, p. 152 (2015)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Tiwari, B., Ajmera, B., Yamashiro, B.: Causes of cyclic shear failure at Lokanthali of Araniko highway after Mw 7.8 2015 Gorkha earthquake. In: Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering, pp. 78–91 (2016)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Tiwari, B., Pradel, D., Ajmera, B., Yamashiro, B., Diwakar, K.: Case study: numerical analysis of landslide movement at Lokanthali during the Mw = 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. (in Press)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Tiwari, B., Ajmera, B., Dhital, S.: Characteristics of moderate to large scale landslides triggered by the Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake and its aftershocks. Landslides 14(4), 1297–1318 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tiwari, B., Pradel, D.: Ground deformation at Lokanthali, Kathmandu due to Mw 7.8 2015 Gorkha earthquake, vol. 278, pp. 333–342. Geotechnical Special Publication (2017)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ozsvath, D.L.: The slippery slope of litigating geologic hazards: California’s Portuguese Bend. National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science (1999)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    ASTM D4318.: Standard test methods for liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index of soils. ASTM International (2010)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    ASTM D6528.: Standard test method for consolidated undrained direct simple shear testing of cohesive soils. ASTM International (2007)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tiwari, B., Ajmera, B.: Curvature of failure envelopes for normally consolidated clays. In: Proceedings of the Third Landslide Forum – Landslide Science for a Safer Geo-environment, vol. 2, pp. 117–122 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Beena Ajmera
    • 1
  • Binod Tiwari
    • 2
  • Brian Yamashiro
    • 3
  • Quoc-Hung Phan
    • 3
  1. 1.California State University, FullertonFullertonUSA
  2. 2.California State University, FullertonFullertonUSA
  3. 3.California State University, FullertonFullertonUSA

Personalised recommendations