Low-Temperature Leachability and Strength Properties of Contaminated Soil with High Moisture Content Stabilized by Novel Phosphate-Based Binder

Conference paper

Abstract

Although cement-based materials are the most extensively used binders in the solidification/stabilization (S/S) technique, the substantial retardation in the cement hydration by high concentration of heavy metals and low temperature curing condition deteriorate the performances of stabilized soils. A novel binder, KMP, composed of oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock, monopotassium phosphate and reactive magnesia, shows lower leachability for heavy metal and higher strength for the stabilized soils with optimum moisture content. However, the study on low-temperature properties of contaminated soil with high moisture content stabilized by KMP is very limited. The present study validates the low-temperature effectiveness of KMP in S/S techniques by evaluating the strength and heavy metals leached properties of stabilized smelting industrial contaminated soil. A series of tests, including moisture content, dry density, soil pH, leachate electrical conductivity, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and unconfined compressive strength test are undertaken. Portland cement is selected as a control binder for comparison purposes. The results show that the effect of low-temperature curing condition to the UCS of KMP stabilized soil specimens is lower relative to PC stabilized soil specimens. The KMP stabilized soil specimens with initial moisture content of 25% and cured at −10 °C can fulfill the requirement in USEPA Guidance (≥350 kPa). The effect of low-temperature curing condition to the heavy metals leached concentrations of KMP stabilized soil specimens are lower relative to PC stabilized soil specimens. The KMP stabilized soil specimens with initial moisture content of 35% and cured at −10 °C can fulfill the requirement in China MEP threshold limit. The UCS of stabilized soil decreases with increasing initial moisture content. The UCS of KMP stabilized soil is lower than the PC stabilized soil specimen with high initial moisture content of 35%, while the UCS of KMP stabilized soil is higher than the PC stabilized soil with initial moisture content of 25%.

Keywords

Solidification/stabilization Low-temperature High moisture content Phosphate-based binder Leachability Strength 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful for the support of Environmental Protection Scientific Research Project of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. 2016031), National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA06A206), the State Key Program of National Natural Science of China (Grant No. 41330641), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41472258), and Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (Grant No. BK2012022).

References

  1. 1.
    The World Bank. Overview of the current situation on brownfield remediation and redevelopment in China. The World Bank, sustainable development-East Asia and Pacific, Washington (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    United Nations. World urbanization prospects: the 2011 revision United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), Population Division, Population Estimates and Projections Section, New York (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Harbottle, M.J., Al-Tabbaa, A., Evans, C.W.: A comparison of the technical sustainability of in situ stabilisation/solidification with disposal to landfill. J. Hazard. Mater. 141(2), 430–440 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Du, Y.J., Jiang, N.J., Liu, S.Y., et al.: Engineering properties and microstructural characteristics of cement-stabilized zinc-contaminated kaolin. Can. Geotech. J. 51(3), 289–302 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Spence, R.D., Shi, C.J.: Stabilization and Solidification of Hazardous, Radioactive, and Mixed Wastes. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Scrivener, K.L., Kirkpatrick, R.J.: Innovation in use and research on cementitious material. Cem. Concr. Res. 38(2), 128–136 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zha, F.S., Liu, J.J., Xu, L., et al.: Cyclic wetting and drying tests on heavy metal contaminated soils solidified/stabilized by cement. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 07, 1246–1252 (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Du, Y.J., Wei, M.L., Reddy, K.R., et al.: Effect of acid rain pH on leaching behavior of cement stabilized lead-contaminated soil. J. Hazard. Mater. 271, 131–140 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wei, M.L., Du, Y.J., Reddy, K.R., Wu, H.L.: Effects of freeze-thaw on characteristics of new KMP binder stabilized Zn and Pb contaminated soils. Environ. Res. Pollut. Res. 22(24), 19473–19484 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Du, Y.J., Wei, M.L., Reddy, K.R., et al.: New phosphate-based binder for stabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals: leaching, strength and microstructure characterization. J. Environ. Manag. 146, 179–188 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Du, Y.J., Wei, M.L., Reddy, K.R., et al.: Effect of carbonation on leachability, strength and microstructural characteristics of KMP binder stabilized Zn and Pb contaminated soils. Chemosphere 144, 1033–1042 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen, R., Kang, E., Ji, X., et al.: Cold regions in China. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 45(2), 95–102 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Andersland, O., Anderson, D.: Geotechnical Engineering for Cold Regions. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York (1978)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Freitag, D.R., McFadden, T.T.: Introduction to Cold Regions Engineering. ASCE Press, Reston (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lothenbach, B., Winnefeld, F., Alder, C., et al.: Effect of temperature on the pore solution, microstructure and hydration products of Portland cement pastes. Cem. Concr. Res. 37(4), 483–491 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gallucci, E., Zhang, X., Scrivener, K.L.: Effect of temperature on the microstructure of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH). Cem. Concr. Res. 53, 185–195 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Myers, R.J., L’Hôpital, E., Provis, J.L., et al.: Effect of temperature and aluminium on calcium (alumino) silicate hydrate chemistry under equilibrium conditions. Cem. Concr. Res. 68, 83–93 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ogirigbo, O.R., Black, L.: Influence of slag composition and temperature on the hydration and microstructure of slag blended cements. Constr. Build. Mater. 126, 496–507 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yang, Q., Wu, X.: Factors influencing properties of phosphate cement-based binder for rapid repair of concrete. Cem. Concr. Res. 29(3), 389–396 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Li, Y., Chen, B.: Factors that affect the properties of magnesium phosphate cement. Constr. Build. Mater. 47, 977–983 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Abdelrazig, B.E.I., Sharp, J.H., El-Jazairi, B.: The chemical composition of mortars made from magnesia-phosphate cement. Cem. Concr. Res. 18(3), 415–425 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cai, G.H., Du, Y.J., Liu, S.Y., et al.: Physical properties, electrical resistivity, and strength characteristics of carbonated silty soil admixed with reactive magnesia. Can. Geotech. J. 52(11), 1699–1713 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shand, M.A.: The Chemistry and Technology of Magnesia. Wiley, Hoboken (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jin, F., Al-Tabbaa, A.: Evaluation of novel reactive MgO activated slag binder for the immobilisation of lead and zinc. Chemosphere 117, 285–294 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shackelford, C.D., Benson, C.H., Katsumi, T., et al.: Evaluating the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs permeated with non-standard liquids. Geotext. Geomembr. 18(2), 133–161 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    China MEP: Identification standards for hazardous wastes-Identification for corrosivity (GB5085. 1-2007). China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, China (2007)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hunan EPD: Standards for Soil Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Sites (DB43/T1165-2016). Environmental Protection Department of Hunan Province, China (2016)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    China MEP: Identification standards for hazardous wastes-identification for extraction toxicity (GB5085. 3-2007). China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, China (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    USEPA: Prohibition on the disposal of bulk liquid hazardous waste in landfills–statutory interpretive guidance, office of solid waste and emergency response, EPA/530-SW-016, Washington D.C. (1986)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fall, M., Pokharel, M.: Coupled effects of sulphate and temperature on the strength development of cemented tailings backfills: Portland cement-paste backfill. Cem. Concr. Compos. 32(10), 819–828 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gan, M.S.J.: Cement and Concrete. CRC Press, Boca Raton (1997)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chew, S.H., Kamruzzaman, A.H.M., Lee, F.H.: Physicochemical and engineering behavior of cement treated clays. J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng. 130(7), 696–706 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Venkatarama Reddy, B.V., Lal, R., Nanjunda Rao, K.S.: Enhancing bond strength and characteristics of soil-cement block masonry. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 19(2), 164–172 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Olmo, I.F., Chacon, E., Irabien, A.: Influence of lead, zinc, iron (III) and chromium (III) oxides on the setting time and strength development of Portland cement. Cem. Concr. Res. 31(8), 1213–1219 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Mellado, A., Borrachero, M.V., Soriano, L., et al.: Immobilization of Zn (II) in Portland cement pastes. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 112(3), 1377–1389 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Qiao, F.: Reaction mechanisms of magnesium potassium phosphate cement and its application (2010)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chau, C.K., Qiao, F., Li, Z.: Potentiometric study of the formation of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate. J. Mater. Civil Eng. 24(5), 586–591 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, Southeast UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations