Engineering Properties of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Solidified/Stabilized with High Calcium Fly Ash and Soda Residue

  • Jingjing Liu
  • Fusheng Zha
  • Long Xu
  • Yongfeng Deng
  • Chengfu Chu
Conference paper


Both high-calcium fly ash and soda residue are the industrial by-products generated during the combustion of coal for energy production and sodium carbonate production, respectively. Previous studies suggested that both high-calcium fly ash and soda residue can be used to treat heavy metal contaminated soils. Therefore, a series of laboratory experiments were performed to investigate the strength and leaching properties of Pb-contaminated soils solidified/stabilized by high calcium fly ash and soda residue. The results presented that adding high-calcium fly ash to the contaminated soils can significantly improve the soil strength and reduce the Pb2+ amount released out. The specimens treated with soda residue got a higher strength, but a relatively lower chemical stability than that of fly ash. SEM results confirmed that Ca(OH)2 and CSH was the main products that improved the engineering properties of the stabilized contaminated soils.


Fly ash Soda residue Heavy metal contaminated soil Solidification/stabilization Unconfined compressive strength Leaching characteristics 



This research is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 41672306, 41372281, 41172273, and 41572282).


  1. 1.
    Shi, H.S.: Research on intrinsic characteristics and hydration properties of fly ash with high calcium oxide. J. Tongji Univ. 31(12), 1440–1443 (2003). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Antiohos, S., Tsimas, S.: Investigating the role of reactive silica in the hydration mechanisms of high-calcium fly ash/cement systems. Cem. Concr. Compos. 27, 171–181 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tishmack, J.K., Olek, J., Diamond, S.: Characterization of high-calcium fly ash ashes and their potential influence on ettringite formation in cementitious systems. Cem. concr. aggreg. 21, 82–92 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahmaruzzaman, M.: A review on the utilization of fly ash. Energy Combust. Sci. 36, 327–363 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liu, X.W., Liu, X.B., Liu, Z.G., Li, G.F.: Leaching toxicity experiment and treatment of alkaline slag. J. Salt Chem. Ind. 40(5), 51–54 (2011). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li, Y.Y., Yan, S.W., Zhang, J.Y., Yin, X.T.: Engineering properties and microstructural features of the soda residue. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 21(1), 100–103 (1999)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cao, X., Sun, J.C., Jin, C.J., Gao, Y., Liu, Y., You, X.H.: The competitive absorption effect of heavy metals on alkaline sludge. Shandong Sci. 22(6), 17–20 (2009). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yan, C., Song, X.K., Zhu, P., Sun, H.Y., Li, Y.P., Zhang, J.F.: Experimental study on strength characteristics of soda residue with high water content. Chin. J. Geotech. Eng. 29(11), 1683–1688 (2007). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chen, C.: Heavy metal pollution state and evaluation of typical area of Anhui province. Hefei: Hefei University of Technology, thesis (2013). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liao, X.Y., Chong, Z.Y., Yan, X.L., Zhao, D.: Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China. Environ. Sci. 32(3), 784–794 (2011). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    U.S. EPA: Test methods for evaluating solid waste, physical/chemical methods, SW-846. 3rd edn. Method 1311, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu, A., Sarkar, S.L.: Microstructrual study of gypsum activated fly ash hydration in cement paste. Cem. Concr. Res. 21, 1137–1147 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sun, S.L., Zheng, Q.H., Tang, J., Zhang, G.Y., Zhou, L.G., Shang, W.T.: Experimental research on expansive soil improved by soda residue. Rock Soil Mech. 33(06), 1608–1612 (2012). (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bayat, B.: Combined removal of zinc (II) and cadmium (II) from aqueous solutions by adsorption onto high-calcium Turkish fly ash. Water Air Soil Pollut. 136, 69–92 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ricou, P., Lecuyer, I., Le Cloirec, P.: Removal of Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ by adsorption onto fly ash and fly ash/lime mixing. Water Sci. Technol. 39, 239–247 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cocke, D.L.: The binding chemistry and leaching mechanisms of hazardous substances in cementitious solidification/ stabilization systems. J. Hazard. Mater. 24, 231–253 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yousuf, M., Mollah, A., Vempati, R.K., Lin, T.C., Cocket, D.L.: The interfacial chemistry of solidification-stabilization of metals in cement and pozzolanic material systems. Waste Manag. 15(2), 137–148 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jingjing Liu
    • 1
  • Fusheng Zha
    • 1
  • Long Xu
    • 1
  • Yongfeng Deng
    • 2
  • Chengfu Chu
    • 1
  1. 1.Hefei University of TechnologyHefeiChina
  2. 2.Institute of Geotechnical Engineering, School of TransportationSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations