Thermodynamics and Morphological Fractal Characteristics of WC Particulates Reinforced Steel Matrix Composites by Composite Electroslag Melting and Casting

  • Ning Zhang
  • Chunhong Zhang
  • Mingfan Zhu
  • Yinghuai Qiang
Conference paper


The composite electroslag melting and casting technology was adopted to produce 45 wt% WC particulate reinforced steel matrix composites. The results indicated that the WC formation showed a dominant position and displays in a triangle or rectangle in the WC reinforced steel matrix composites. As a reference plane, WC grains in the \( (0001) \) surface grew up into a stack structure in the way of hierarchical formation along the \( \left\langle {0001} \right\rangle \) direction, finally formed a three-dimensional shape with the \( (0001) \) surface in a triangle. The fractal dimensions of WC present different changed with the transformation of the heat treatment process. When quenched and tempered at high temperature, the fractal dimension value of two types of WC appeared, and WC phases showed two groups of different fractal structure with different particle size and quantity. The larger fractal dimension difference \( \Delta D \) corresponded to Fe3W3C compound carbides, with the smaller \( \Delta D \) to WC particles which keeps the properties and morphology under the state of forging and annealing. The higher the quenching or tempering temperature, the larger the fractal dimension difference \( \Delta D \) and the greater change of the morphology of WC were obtained.


Thermodynamics Sierpinski fractal dimension WC particulates reinforced steel matrix composites Heat treatment 



Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51401177), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions of China (Grant No. 15KJB430030), and the Science and Technology Project of Xuzhou City (Grant No. KC16SG281).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ning Zhang
    • 1
  • Chunhong Zhang
    • 2
  • Mingfan Zhu
    • 1
  • Yinghuai Qiang
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringXuzhou University of TechnologyXuzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical and Electrical EngineeringXuzhou Bioengineering Technical CollegeXuzhouChina
  3. 3.School of Materials Science and EngineeringChina University of Mining and TechnologyXuzhouChina

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