Advertisement

Compliance: Built to Fail, Negotiating the Compliance Paradox

  • Sean BrawleyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Why does a student choose to study history in their first year at University? Is it because they want to engage with the signature pedagogy of the history discipline or simply because they hold an interest in learning more about American history? This chapter explores the consequences (existing and potential) that have confronted the study of history in higher education within a sector now focussed on standards and compliance. After outlining the new regulatory environment and the current sector landscape and players, the threats to the history major provided by the current compliance agenda are explored. The structural limitations associated with the major when placed beside its international comparators, especially in England and Wales, are also examined within the context of the attainment of standards. What are the consequences of designing units for a history major when the vast majority of the students are actually not completing the major? The chapter concludes by suggesting a way that Australia’s history majors can escape the compliance paradox.

References

  1. Adams, A. (1942). The value of history. Today’s Education, 31, 204–205.Google Scholar
  2. Allais, S. (2012). Claims vs. practicalities: Lessons about using learning outcomes. Journal of Education and Work, 25(3), 331–354.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2012.687570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Historical Association. (2013). AHA History Tuning Project: History Discipline Core. Retrieved July 1, 2016 from https://www.historians.org/teaching-and-learning/tuning/history-discipline-core.
  4. Australasian Council of Deans of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences. (2011). Submission to DEEWR’s Discussion Paper: Developing a Framework for Teaching and Learning Standards in Australia and the Role of TEQSA. Retrieved May 23, 2016 from http://dassh.edu.au/resources/uploads/publications/submissions/20110721_DEEWR_TLframework.pdf.
  5. Australian National University. (2016a). Single Degree: Bachelor of Arts. Retrieved July 1, 2016 from http://programsandcourses.anu.edu.au/program/BARTS.
  6. Australian National University. (2016b). People. Retrieved July 2, 2016 from http://history.cass.anu.edu.au/people.
  7. Australian National University. (2016c). Our People. Retrieved July 2, 2016 from http://chl.anu.edu.au/our-people.
  8. Bloxham, S., Hudson, J., den Outer, B., & Price, M. (2015). External peer review of assessment: an effective approach to verifying standards? Higher Education Research & Development, 34(6), 1069–1082.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2015.1024629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bradley, D. (2008). Review of higher education: Final report. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.Google Scholar
  10. Brancaleone, D., & O’Brien, S. (2011). Educational commodification and the (economic) sign value of learning outcomes. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(4), 501–519.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2011.578435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brawley, S. (2013). A whole of faculty assessment tool. In S. Marshall, R. Henry, & P. Ramburuth (Eds.), Improving assessment in higher education: A whole of institution approach (pp. 76–98). Sydney: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brawley, S., Clark, J., Dixon, C., Ford, L., Grolman, L., Ross, S., et al. (2011). Applying standards to tertiary-level history: Policy, challenges and the after standards project. History Australia, 8(3), 177–194.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1474022212460745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brawley, S., Clark, J., Dixon, C., Ford, L., Nielsen, E., Ross, S., & Upton, S., (2013a). After Standards: Engaging and Embedding History’s Standards using International Best Practice to Inform Curriculum Renewal. Retrieved May 14, 2016 from http://www.olt.gov.au/resource-after-standards.
  14. Brawley, S., Clark, J., Dixon, C., Ford, L., Nielsen, E., Ross, S., et al. (2013b). Learning outcomes assessment and history: TEQSA, the after-standards project and the QA/QI challenge in Australia. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 12(1), 20–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brawley, S., Clark, J., Dixon, C., Ford, L., Nielsen, E., Ross, S., et al. (2015). History on trial: Evaluating learning outcomes through audit and accreditation in a national standards environment. Teaching & Learning Inquiry, 3(2), 89–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Calder, L. (2006). Uncoverage: Toward a signature pedagogy for the history survey. Journal of American History, 92(4), 1358–1370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Charles Darwin University. (2016b). School of Creative Arts and Humanities. Retrieved July 2, 2016 from http://www.cdu.edu.au/creative-arts-humanities/staff.
  18. Clark, A. (2008). History’s children: History wars in the classroom. Sydney: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  19. Clark, J. (2016). Email correspondence with the author and Dr David Roberts, University of New England, 17 June.Google Scholar
  20. Clark, J., & Nye, A. (2017). ‘Surprise Me!’ The (im) possibilities of agency and creativity within the standards framework of history education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(6), 656–668.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2015.1104231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Commonwealth of Australia. (2015). Higher Education Standards Framework (Threshold Standards) 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from https://www.legislation.gov.au/Details/F2015L01639.
  22. Council of Australian Law Deans. (2012). Internationalising the Australian Law Curriculum for Enhanced Global Legal Practice. Retrieved May 23, 2016 from http://curriculum.cald.asn.au/media/uploads/Internationalising_Aust_Law_Curr.pdf.
  23. Creagh, S. (2013). Uni Sector Regulation Beset by Red Tape: Report. Retrieved May 13, 2017, from https://theconversation.com/uni-sector-regulation-beset-by-red-tape-report-16722.
  24. Curtin University. (2016). Courses Handbook. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://handbook.curtin.edu.au/courses/31/319266.html.
  25. Education and Culture DG. (2011). Tuning Sectoral Qualifications Frameworks for the Humanities and the Arts, Final Report 2010–2011. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/images/stories/HUMART/SQF_HUMART_Final_Report_2010-2011.pdf.
  26. Ercikan, K., & Seixas, P. (2015). New directions in assessing historical thinking. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Farquharson, K. (2013). Regulating sociology: Threshold learning outcomes and institutional isomorphism. Journal of Sociology, 49(4), 486–500.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783313504060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farram, S. (2014). Assessment methods appropriate for teaching history in Australian universities. Circa: The Journal of Professional Historians (4), 8–16.Google Scholar
  29. Flinders University. (2016). Bachelor of Arts. Retrieved May 21, 2016, from http://www.flinders.edu.au/courses/rules-2013/undergrad/ba.cfm.
  30. Fraser, K., & Thomas, T. (2013). Challenges of assuring the development of graduate attributes in a Bachelor of Arts. Higher Education Research & Development, 32(4), 545–560.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2012.704594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Furedi, F. (2012). The unhappiness principle, Times Higher Education. Retrieved May 20, 2016, from https://www.timeshighereducation.com/the-unhappiness-principle/421958.article.
  32. Gannaway, D. (2015). The Bachelor of Arts: Slipping into the twilight or facing a new dawn? Higher Education Research & Development, 34(2), 298–310.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2014.956689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gannaway, D., & Trent, F. (2008). Nature and roles of arts degrees in contemporary society: Project final report. Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Retrieved July 1, 2016 from http://www.dassh.edu.au/ba_scoping_project/project_resources.
  34. Group of Eight. (2010). Go8 Backgrounder, No 13, October; Retrieved May 20, 2016, from https://www.go8.edu.au/sites/default/files/docs/go8backgrounder13_standards.pdf.
  35. Hargreaves, A., & Shirley, L. (2009). The fourth way: The inspiring future for educational change. Thousand Oaks, Cal: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  36. Havnes, A., & Prøitz, T. (2016). Why use learning outcomes in higher education? Exploring the grounds for academic resistance and reclaiming the value of unexpected learning. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 28(3), 205–223.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-016-9243-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Huber, M. T., & Brawley, S. (2013). A forum on assessment, accountability and the humanities: Introduction: Minding–and managing–the gap. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 12(1), 3–6.Google Scholar
  38. Hughes-Warrington, M., Roe, J., Nye, A., Bailey, M., Peel, M., Russell, P., et al. (2009). Historical Thinking in Higher Education : An ALTC Discipline-Based Initiative. Sydney : Australian Learning and Teaching Council, Australian Government Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations. http://hdl.handle.net/1959.14/90885.
  39. Hussey, T., & Smith, P. (2002). The trouble with learning outcomes. Active Learning in Higher Education, 3(3), 220–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. James Cook University. (2016a). Course and Subject Handbook. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from https://www.jcu.edu.au/course-and-subject-handbook-2016/courses/undergraduate-courses/bachelor-of-arts.
  41. James Cook University. (2016b). Bachelor of Arts: History. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from https://www.jcu.edu.au/courses-and-study/courses/bachelor-of-arts-in-history.
  42. Krause, K.-L., Barrie, S., & Scott, G. (2012). Mapping Learning and Teaching Standards in Australian Higher Education: An Issues and Options Paper. https://sydney.edu.au/education-portfolio/ei/projects/aaglo/pdf/TL%20Stds_Issues%20Paper.pdf.
  43. Krause, K.-L., Scott, G., Aubin, K., Alexander, H., Angelo, T., Campbell, S., & Probert, B. (2014). Assuring learning and teaching standards through inter-institutional peer review and moderation: Final report of the project. Retrieved June 15, 2016 from http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/576916/External_Report_2014_Web_3.pdf.
  44. Lane, B. (2010). G08 slams academic standards project. The Australian, 27 October.Google Scholar
  45. Lévesque, S. (2009). Thinking historically: Educating students for the twenty-first century. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  46. Lynch, K. (2015). Control by numbers: New managerialism and ranking in higher education. Critical Studies in Education, 56(2), 190–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Macquarie University. (2016). Bachelor of Ancient History. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://courses.mq.edu.au/undergraduate/degree/bachelor-of-ancient-history.
  48. McKinney, K. (2006). Attitudinal and structural factors contributing to challenges in the work of the scholarship of teaching and learning. New directions for institutional research, 2006(129), 37–50.Google Scholar
  49. McLaurin Smith, N., Ellis, J., & Robertson, S. (2005). Embedded and online: Information skills @ the University of Melbourne, in Proceedings, EDUCAUSE, Australasia. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from https://minerva-access.unimelb.edu.au/bitstream/handle/11343/33822/66122_00000887_01_nicki,sabina.pdf?sequence=1.
  50. Monash University. (2016). History Staff. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://artsonline.monash.edu.au/history-studies/history-staff/.
  51. Muldoon, N., & Lee, C. (2007). Formative and summative assessment and the notion of constructive alignment (pp. 98–108). In Frankland, S. (Ed.). Enhancing teaching and learning through assessment. Springer: Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  52. Nye, A., Hughes-Warrington, M., Roe, J., Russell, P., Deacon, D., & Kiem, P. (2011). Exploring historical thinking and agency with undergraduate history students. Studies in Higher Education, 36(7), 763–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. O’Connor, P., & White, K. (2011). Similarities and differences in collegiality/managerialism in Irish and Australian universities. Gender and Education, 23(7), 903–919.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540253.2010.549109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Parker, M., & Jary, D. (1995). The McUniversity: Organization, management and academic subjectivity. Organization, 2(2), 319–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Probert, B. (2015). The quality of Australia’s higher education system: How it might be defined, improved and assured, Discussion Paper No 4, Office for Learning and Teaching Discussion Paper Series, Office for Learning and Teaching, Australian Government. Retrieved July 1, 2016 from http://www.hes.edu.au/assets/HECQN-2015/Probert-Quality-Aust-HE-2015.pdf.
  56. QS World Rankings. (2016). QS World Rankings By subject 2016 History. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://www.topuniversities.com/university-rankings/university-subject-rankings/2016/history-archaeology#sorting=rank+region=+country=+faculty=+stars=false+search. Accessed July 2, 2016.
  57. Roberts, P. (2010). From historical literacy to a pedagogy of history. Discussion paper, University of Canberra. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://leadingcurriculum.blogspot.com/2010/06/national-symposium-building-bridgesfor.html.
  58. Robson, A. (2015). The Revised Higher Education Standards Framework. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://www.hes.edu.au/assets/HECQN-2015/Alan-Robson-Revised-HES-presentation-new-update23-October.pdf.
  59. Rowlands, J. (2012). Accountability, quality assurance and performativity: The changing role of the academic board. Quality in Higher Education, 18(1), 97–110.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13538322.2012.663551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Russell, P. (2004). Almost believing: The ethics of historical imagination. In S. Macintyre (Ed.), The historians’ conscience: Australian historians on the ethics of history (pp. 106–117). Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Sachs, J., & Clark, L. (2017). Learning through community engagement: Vision and practice in higher education. Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shah, M., Lewis, I., & Fitzgerald, R. (2011). The renewal of quality assurance in Australian higher education: The challenge of balancing academic rigour, equity and quality outcomes. Quality in Higher Education, 17(3), 265–278.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13538322.2011.614474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Shattock, M. (2008). Entrepreneurialism in universities and the knowledge economy: Diversification and organizational change in European higher education. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  64. Skinner, K. (2014). Bridging gaps and jumping through hoops: First-year history students’ expectations and perceptions of assessment and feedback in a research-intensive UK university. Arts and Humanities in Higher Education, 13(4), 359–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Southern Cross University. (2016a). Bachelor of Arts: Course Structure. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://courses.scu.edu.au/courses/bachelor-of-arts#course-content=course-structure.
  66. Southern Cross University. (2016b). Bachelor of Arts. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://courses.scu.edu.au/courses/bachelor-of-arts#course-content=course-structure.
  67. Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency. (2015a). HESF Domain 1: Student Participation and Attainment. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://www.teqsa.gov.au/hesf-domain-1-student-participation-and-attainment.
  68. Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency. (2015b). Context and Guiding Principles for the Approach to Transition. Retrieved May 23, 2016, from http://www.teqsa.gov.au/sites/default/files/StandardsTransitionProjectGuidingPrinciples.pdf.
  69. Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency. (2016a). Streamlining the Regulatory Process for VET and Higher Education Providers. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://www.teqsa.gov.au/news-publications/news/streamlining-regulatory-process-vet-and-higher-education-providers.
  70. Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency. (2016b). Engagement with Professional Bodies. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://www.teqsa.gov.au/regulatory-approach/engagement-with-professional-bodies.
  71. Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency. (2016c). Guidance Note: Course Design. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://www.teqsa.gov.au/sites/default/files/GuidanceNoteCourseDesignLearningOutcomesandAssessment1.0.pdf.
  72. Thornton, M. (Ed.). (2015). Through a glass darkly: The social sciences look at the Neoliberal University. Canberra: ANU Press.Google Scholar
  73. Tuning America Latina. (2011). Subject Specific Competences: History. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://tuning.unideusto.org/tuningal/index.php?option=content&task=view&id=232&Itemid=261.
  74. Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. (2011a). Sectoral Qualification Framework—Humanities. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/images/stories/HUMART/SQF_for_the_Humanities.pdf.
  75. Tuning Educational Structures in Europe. (2011b). Sectoral Qualification Framework—Social Sciences. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://www.unideusto.org/tuningeu/images/stories/sectoral_framework/2007_10347_FR_Tuning_SQF_PUBLIC_PART.pdf.
  76. United Kingdom Quality Assurance Agency. (2007). History 2007. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://www.qaa.ac.uk/en/Publications/Documents/Subject-benchmark-statement-History.pdf.
  77. University of Birmingham. (2016a). BA History. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/undergraduate/courses/history/history.aspx#CourseDetailsTab.
  78. University of Birmingham. (2016b). Joint Honours Undergraduate Open Day Talk, 2016. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZD1_MSIgeo.
  79. University of California—Los Angeles. (2016). Department of History. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://www.history.ucla.edu/faculty.
  80. University of Exeter. (2016). History Staff Profiles. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from http://humanities.exeter.ac.uk/history/staff/.
  81. University of Melbourne. (2016). Bachelor of Arts. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://ba.unimelb.edu.au/about/course-structure.
  82. University of New England. (2016). Bachelor of Historical Inquiry. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from https://my.une.edu.au/courses/2015/courses/BHIP.
  83. University of Sydney. (2016). Bachelor of Arts. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://sydney.edu.au/courses/bachelor-of-arts. Accessed July 2.
  84. University of Tasmania. (2016). Bachelor of Arts. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://www.utas.edu.au/courses/art/courses/13a-bachelor-of-arts.
  85. University of Western Australia. (2016). UWA Handbook. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://handbooks.uwa.edu.au/undergraduate/courses/about/ug_course_structure.
  86. University of Wisconsin-Madison. (2016). Department of History. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from https://history.wisc.edu/faculty.htm.
  87. University of Wollongong. (2016). LHA101: An Introduction to the Arts and Humanities. Retrieved July 2, 2016, from http://lha.uow.edu.au/current-students/lhacentral/UOW087916.html.
  88. University of York. (2016). Department of History: Academic Staff. Retrieved July 1, 2016, from https://www.york.ac.uk/history/staff/profiles/.
  89. Wineburg, S. (2001). Historical thinking and other unnatural acts: Charting the future of teaching the past. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Macquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations