An Improved Lossless Data Hiding Scheme in JPEG Bitstream by VLC Mapping

  • Yang Du
  • Zhaoxia Yin
  • Xinpeng Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Communications in Computer and Information Science book series (CCIS, volume 747)


This paper proposed a lossless data hiding scheme by variable length code (VLC) mapping, which focused on embedding additional data into JPEG bitstream. The entropy-coded data in JPEG bitstream consists of a sequence of VLCs and the appended bits. Not all VLCs defined in the JPEG file header are used in the entropy-coded data and the replacement of unused-VLCs do nothing with image decompression. Hence, additional data can be embedded by mapping the unused-VLCs to the used-VLCs. To obtain higher embedding capacity, we improved the mapping rules in this paper. Employing the proposed mapping scheme, larger embedding capacity and no image distortion are both achieved while the filesize of JPEG is preserved after data embedding.


Data hiding JPEG bitstream VLC Lossless 



This research work is partly supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (61502009, 61525203, 61472235, U1636206), Undergraduates Training Foundation of Anhui University, Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation (1508085SQF216) and Key Program for Excellent Young Talents in Colleges and Universities of Anhui Province (gxyqZD2016011).


  1. 1.
    Wong, P.H.W., Au, O.C.L., Wong, J.W.C.: Data hiding and watermarking in JPEG-compressed domain by DC coefficient modification. In: Proceedings of SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, pp. 237–244 (2000)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huang, F., Qu, X., Kim, H.J., et al.: Reversible data hiding in JPEG images. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 26(9), 1610–1621 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fridrich, J., Goljan, M., Du, R.: Lossless data embedding for all image formats. In: International Society for Optics and Photonics, Electronic Imaging, pp. 572–583 (2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xuan, G., Shi, Y.Q., Ni, Z., Chai, P., Cui, X., Tong, X.: Reversible data hiding for JPEG images based on histogram pairs. In: Kamel, M., Campilho, A. (eds.) ICIAR 2007. LNCS, vol. 4633, pp. 715–727. Springer, Heidelberg (2007). Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mobasseri, B.G., Berger, R.J., Marcinak, M.P., et al.: Data embedding in JPEG bitstream by code mapping. IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19(4), 958–966 (2010)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Qian, Z., Zhang, X.: Lossless data hiding in JPEG bitstream. J. Syst. Softw. 85(2), 309–313 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu, Y., Wang, K., Lu, Z.M.: An improved VLC-based lossless data hiding scheme for JPEG images. J. Syst. Softw. 86(8), 2166–2173 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    The USC-SIPI Image Database.
  9. 9.
    The UCID Image Database.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Signal Processing, Ministry of EducationAnhui UniversityHefeiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of Communication and Information EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations