The Rise of Organic Agriculture in the Philippines and its Development
This chapter examines organic agriculture as a definite alternative to industrial forms of agriculture in the Philippines. It argues that its mainstreaming depends on the complex and difficult reconstruction of socioeconomic relations and the political system of the country. In recent years, organic agriculture in the Philippines has become an emergent market integrating into the national economy. In 1980s, the green revolution was proclaimed a failure due to its economic unsustainability and negative impact on the environment. From this and through a combination of the rise of the international organic agriculture movement and the reinvention of traditional Philippine agriculture, organic agriculture has come to play a role as an alternative form of agricultural development. This chapter argues that the conscious development of organic agriculture is a response to the failures of the present agricultural structure and offers a potentially economically viable alternative to rehabilitate degraded arable land.
KeywordPhilippines Organic agriculture Green revolution Industrial agriculture International federation of organic agriculture movements (IFOAM) National organic agriculture program (NOAP)
- Anti-slavery Society. (1983). The Philippines: Authoritarian government, multinationals and ancestral lands. London: Anti-Slavery Society.Google Scholar
- Bosito, E. F., & Buena, Rowena. (2014). PGS continues to gain ground in the Philippines. Global PGS Newsletter, 05:02(November/ December), 2–3.Google Scholar
- Briones, N. D. (2005). Environmental sustainability issues in Philippine agriculture. Asian Journal Agriculture and Development, 2(1–2), 67–78.Google Scholar
- Carating, R. B., & Tejada, S. Q. 2012. Sustainable organic farming in the Philippines: History and success stories. Paper presented at the workshop on ANSOFT-AFACI Pan-Asia project at Gwangju, Republic of Korea, 18–20 October.Google Scholar
- Concepcion, M. B. (1994). The Philippine population problem: Myth and reality. Philippine Studies, 42(2), 139–154.Google Scholar
- Corpuz, O. D. (1997). An economic history of the Philippines. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press.Google Scholar
- National Organic Agriculture Board (NOAB). (2012). The national organic agriculture program 2012-2016. National Organic Agriculture Board (NOAB), Department of Agriculture: Quezon City.Google Scholar
- Oray, R., Edano, M. L. S., & Zamora, O. B. (2002). Sustainable agriculture in a small-scale resource-limited farm: Case documentation of a MASIPAG farmer in Hinobaan, Negros Occidental. Los Banos: SEAMEO SEARCA.Google Scholar
- Sajise, P. E., & Briones, N. D. (2002). Environmentally sustainable rural and agricultural development strategies in the Philippines: Lessons from six case studies. Los Banos: SEAMEO SEARCA.Google Scholar
- Serrano, R. C. (1990). Environmental and socio-economic impact analysis of an indigenous and an introduced agroforestry system in Luzon. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of the Philippines, Los Banos.Google Scholar
- Sycip, M. L., Javier, C. F., Salayog, F. A., & Vilar, N. C. (2002). Sustainable agriculture in a large-scale commercial farm: Case documentation of the Sycip plantation farm workers multipurpose cooperative in Manjuyod, Negros Oriental. Los Banos: SEAMEO SEARCA.Google Scholar
- Veneracion, J. B. (2000). Philippine agriculture during the Spanish regime. Quezon City: College of Social Sciences and Philosophy.Google Scholar
- Willer, H., & Lernoud, J. (Eds.). (2015). The world of organic agriculture: statistics and emerging trends 2015. Frick and Bonn: Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and IFOAM-Organics International.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (1989). Philippines: Toward sustaining the economic recovery, Report No. 7438-PH (January 30).Google Scholar
- Carillo, C. A. (2015). Davao farmers push government institutionalization of guarantee system for organic products. http://www.bworldonline.com/content.php?section=Agribusiness&title=davao-farmers-push-gov&rsquot-institutionalization-of-guarantee-system-for-organic-products&id=93162. Accessed: 25. Aug. 2015.
- Cruz, R. T. D. (2015). Strenthening organic agriculture RDE: BAR’s initiatives on food sufficiency and sustainable agriculture. http://www.bar.gov.ph/organic-agriculture-rde. Accessed: 24. Aug. 2015.
- Cruz, R. T. D. (2015). To be or not to be organic. http://www.bar.gov.ph/organic-farming. Accessed: 25. Aug. 2015.
- Dangcalan, D. B. (2015). P 20-M fund eyed in proposed Organic Agriculture ordinance. http://www.philstar.com/region/658558/p20-m-fund-eyed-proposed-organic-agriculture-ordinance. Accessed: 25. Aug. 2015.
- IFOAM-Organics International. (2015). Definition of organic agriculture. http://www.ifoam.bio/en/organic-landmarks/definition-organic-agriculture. Accessed: 2. Feb. 2015.
- Juan, C. (2015). Is Negros Island the organic bowl of Asia? http://www.manilatimes.net/is-negros-island-the-organic-bowl-of-asia/199984/. Accessed: 26. July. 2016.
- Lacorte, G. (2015). Organic food growers seek easier way of certification. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/632090/organic-food-growers-seek-easier-way-of-certification. Accessed: 25. Aug. 2015.
- N.A. Organic farming: the future of Philippine agriculture. (2012). Far Eastern Agriculture (FEA). http://www.fareasternagriculture.com/crops/agriculture/organic-farming-the-future-of-philippine-agriculture. Accessed: 25. Aug. 2015.
- Republic of the Philippines. (2015). Act No. 10068 (known as Organic Agriculture Act of 2010). http://www.da.gov.ph/index.php/laws-issuances. Accessed: 2. Feb. 2015.