Flow of Energy

  • Jiansu Mao
  • Chunhui Li
  • Yuansheng Pei
  • Linyu Xu


As previously mentioned, the goal of an anthropogenic flow of material is to meet specific needs of human beings. The transformation of material from natural resource into a product with specific service functions must undergo changes from multiple aspects, such as quantity, form, and space. It can be observed from physics and chemistry that these changes to the material must be implemented via an external force and with the use of energy instead of the material’s own natural transformation process. Therefore, the anthropogenic flow of energy certainly exists within the material flow process of the socio-economic system of human beings. The flow of energy is of equal importance to the material flow. Additionally, how does energy flow? This is the topic to be discussed in this chapter.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiansu Mao
    • 1
  • Chunhui Li
    • 1
  • Yuansheng Pei
    • 1
  • Linyu Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EnvironmentBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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