Circulation of Substances: Analysis of Logistics

  • Jiansu Mao
  • Chunhui Li
  • Yuansheng Pei
  • Linyu Xu


To clarify the concept of mankind’s flow of material, this chapter will explore how material flows in the human socio-economic system and how the flow may be managed and optimized. Through the discussion in the previous chapters, we find that there are different environmental problems in different regions, and different environmental problems involve different types of substances. The natural circulation process of different material types and the process of human flow are also different. Beginning with the simplest material, scientific research is often performed with the principle of “simple and complex”; therefore, this chapter selects a simple substance. Based on their relationship with modern social and economic development and the resources and environment of this type of material, we select metal substances as the representative material for this topic.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiansu Mao
    • 1
  • Chunhui Li
    • 1
  • Yuansheng Pei
    • 1
  • Linyu Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.School of EnvironmentBeijing Normal UniversityBeijingChina

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