Stage I Norwood Procedure: Hybrid Therapy
The hybrid procedure, as the name implies, combines both surgical and interventional catheter procedures. The catheterization of patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome includes stenting of the ductus and balloon dilation of the atrial septum. Pulmonary blood flow is restricted by application of bilateral pulmonary artery bands. Hybrid therapy can replace the Stage I Norwood procedure. It is especially suitable for patients with high-risk factors and for those who cannot undergo cardiopulmonary bypass, including cerebral hemorrhage, premature children, etc.