Pathological Classification

  • Yu Guo WengEmail author
  • Bin Qiao


Pathological studies on HLHS find that proximally 45% of HLHS cases are often associated with aortic valve atresia and mitral stenosis, 41% with aortic valve and mitral valve atresia, and 13% with severe aortic valve and mitral stenosis.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and People's Medical Publishing House Co. Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.German Heart Center (Berlin)BerlinGermany
  2. 2.Cardiovascular InstituteGeneral Hospital of Jinan Military RegionJinanChina
  3. 3.Cardiac Surgery Center, Western District of Shandong Provincial HospitalJinanChina

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