Asian Destinations: Perspectives on Planning, Management, and Marketing

  • Ying Wang
  • Aishath Shakeela
  • Anna Kwek
  • Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore
Part of the Perspectives on Asian Tourism book series (PAT)


Tourism in Asia has experienced healthy growth in the last few years and is projected to grow at a rate above the world’s average. While there has been an increasing scholarly interest in Asian tourism activities and development, existing academic knowledge on managing Asian tourism destinations is highly fragmented. A cursory examination of literature suggests three main themes of destination literature: Planning, Management, and Marketing. Accordingly, we organized the chapters into these three core categories. For each of the three themes, we provide a brief evaluation of the current literature with a specific focus on Asian destinations and a summary of chapters addressing the theme. The chapter concludes with a call for further effort into several under-explored research areas.


Asian tourism Planning Management Marketing Tourism futures Review 


  1. Abd Mutalib, N. S., Soh, Y. C., Wong, T. W., Yee, S. M., Yang, Q., Murugiah, M. K., & Ming, L. C. (2017). Online narratives about medical tourism in Malaysia and Thailand: A qualitative content analysis. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(6), 821–832.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adeyinka-Ojo, S., & Khoo-Lattimore, C. (2013). Slow food events as a high yield strategy for rural tourism destinations: The case of Bario, Sarawak. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 5(4), 353–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adeyinka-Ojo, S. F., Khoo-Lattimore, C., & Nair, V. (2014). A framework for rural tourism destination management and marketing organisations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 144, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alipour, H., & Kilic, H. (2005). An institutional appraisal of tourism development and planning: The case of the Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (TRNC). Tourism Management, 26(1), 79–94. Scholar
  5. Anantamongkolkul, C., Butcher, K., & Wang, Y. (2017). The four stages of on-site behavior for a long-stay relaxation holiday. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 23(3), 217–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Avraham, E., & Ketter, E. (2017). Destination marketing during and following crises: Combating negative images in Asia. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 34(6), 709–718. Scholar
  7. Ayeh, J. K., Au, N., & Law, R. (2013). Do we believe in TripAdvisor? Examining credibility perceptions and online travelers’ attitude toward using user-generated content. Journal of Travel Research, 52(4), 437–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Catibog-Sinha, C., & Wen, J. (2008). Sustainable tourism planning and management model for protected natural areas: Xishuangbanna biosphere reserve, South China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 13(2), 145–162. Scholar
  9. Chaisawat, M. (2006). Policy and planning of tourism product development in Thailand: A proposed model. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 11(1), 1–16. Scholar
  10. Chan, B. (2007). Film-induced tourism in Asia: A case study of Korean television drama and female viewers’ motivation to visit Korea. Tourism, Culture and Communication, 7(3), 207–224. Scholar
  11. Chan, A., Hsu, C. H., & Baum, T. (2015). The impact of tour service performance on tourist satisfaction and behavioral intentions: A study of Chinese tourists in Hong Kong. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 32(1–2), 18–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chang, K. C. (2014). Examining the effect of tour guide performance, tourist trust, tourist satisfaction, and flow experience on tourists’ shopping behavior. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(2), 219–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chen, C.-Y., Sok, P., & Sok, K. (2008). Evaluating the competitiveness of the tourism industry in Cambodia: Self-assessment from professionals. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 13(1), 41–66. Scholar
  14. Chen, C. M., Chen, S. H., & Lee, H. T. (2009). The influence of service performance and destination resources on consumer behaviour: A case study of mainland Chinese tourists to Kinmen. International Journal of Tourism Research, 11(3), 269–282. Scholar
  15. Chen, Y., Schuckert, M., Song, H., & Chon, K. (2016). Why can package tours hurt tourists? Evidence from China’s tourism demand in Hong Kong. Journal of Travel Research, 55(4), 427–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheng, T., & Wu, H. C. (2015). How do environmental knowledge, environmental sensitivity, and place attachment affect environmentally responsible behavior? An integrated approach for sustainable Island tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 23(4), 557–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cheng, T.-M., Wu, C. H., & Huang, L.-M. (2013). The influence of place attachment on the relationship between destination attractiveness and environmentally responsible behavior for island tourism in Penghu, Taiwan. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(8), 1166–1187. Scholar
  18. Choi, S., Lehto, X. Y., & Morrison, A. M. (2007). Destination image representation on the web: Content analysis of Macau travel related websites. Tourism Management, 28(1), 118–129. Scholar
  19. Cong, L., Wu, B., Morrison, A. M., Shu, H., & Wang, M. (2014). Analysis of wildlife tourism experiences with endangered species: An exploratory study of encounters with giant pandas in Chengdu, China. Tourism Management, 40, 300–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dai, S., Xu, H., Scott, N., Ding, P., & Laws, E. (2012). Distortions in tourism development in the Dali autonomous region, China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(2), 146–163. Scholar
  21. Dredge, D. (2004). Development, economy and culture: Cultural heritage tourism planning, Liangzhu, China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 9(4), 405–422. Scholar
  22. Dwyer, L., & Thomas, F. (2012). Tourism yield measures for Cambodia. Current Issues in Tourism, 15(4), 303–328. Scholar
  23. Hampton, M. (2005). Heritage, local communities and economic development. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3), 735–759. Scholar
  24. Han, H.-J., & Lee, J.-S. (2008). A study on the KBS TV drama Winter Sonata and its impact on Korea’s Hallyu tourism development. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 24(2–3), 115–126. Scholar
  25. Han, J., Wang, W., Zheng, C., & Zhang, J. (2017). Host perceptions of music festival impacts: Time and space matter? Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(11), 1156–1168. Scholar
  26. Horng, J.-S., & (Simon) Tsai, C.-T. (2010). Government websites for promoting East Asian culinary tourism: A cross-national analysis. Tourism Management, 31(1), 74–85. Scholar
  27. Hsu, C. H. C., & Song, H. (2012). Projected images of major Chinese outbound destinations. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(5), 577–593. Scholar
  28. Huang, S., & Hsu, C. H. C. (2005). Mainland Chinese residents’ perceptions and motivations of visiting Hong Kong: Evidence from focus group interviews. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 10(2), 191–206. Scholar
  29. International Telecommunication Union. (2016). Measuring the information society report, 2016. Geneva: ICT.Google Scholar
  30. Issa, I. A., & Altinay, L. (2006). Impacts of political instability on tourism planning and development: The case of Lebanon. Tourism Economics, 12(3), 361–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jaafar, M., Aziz, A. R. A., & Sukarno, S. Z. M. (2012). Tourism marketing: An overview of small and medium budget hotels (SMBHs). Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(1), 1–13. Scholar
  32. Jang, S. S., & Chen, M.-H. (2008). Financial portfolio approach to optimal tourist market mixes. Tourism Management, 29(4), 761–770. Scholar
  33. John, S. P. (2017). An analysis of the social media practices for sustainable medical tourism destination marketing. International Journal of Tourism Policy, 7(3), 222–249. Scholar
  34. Joppe, M. (2018). Tourism policy and governance: Quo vadis? Tourism Management Perspectives, 25(1).
  35. Kang, E.-J., Scott, N., Lee, T. J., & Ballantyne, R. (2012). Benefits of visiting a ‘dark tourism’ site: The case of the Jeju April 3rd Peace Park, Korea. Tourism Management, 33(2), 257–265. Scholar
  36. Kim, W. G., Park, Y., Gazzoli, G., & Sheng, E. (2011). Benefit segmentation of international travelers to Macau, China. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality and Tourism, 12(1), 28–57. Scholar
  37. Kozak, M., & Martin, D. (2012). Tourism life cycle and sustainability analysis: Profit-focused strategies for mature destinations. Tourism Management, 33(1), 188–194. Scholar
  38. Ku, G. C. M., & Mak, A. H. N. (2017). Exploring the discrepancies in perceived destination images from residents’ and tourists’ perspectives: A revised importance–performance analysis approach. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(11), 1124–1138. Scholar
  39. Kwek, A., & Lee, Y. S. (2008). Intra-cultural variance of Chinese tourists in destination image project: Case of Queensland, Australia. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 16(1–2), 105–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kwek, A., Wang, Y., & Weaver, D. B. (2014). Retail tours in China for overseas Chinese: Soft power or hard sell? Annals of Tourism Research, 44, 36–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lagarense, B. E. S., & Walansendow, A. (2015). Exploring residents’ perceptions and participation on tourism and waterfront development: The case of Manado waterfront development in Indonesia. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(2), 223–237. Scholar
  42. Lai, K., Li, Y., & Feng, X. (2006). Gap between tourism planning and implementation: A case of China. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1171–1180. Scholar
  43. Laroche, M., Bergeron, J., & Barbaro-Forleo, G. (2001). Targeting consumers who are willing to pay more for environmentally friendly products. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 18(6), 503–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee, C.-F. (2014). An investigation of factors determining cycling experience and frequency. Tourism Geographies, 16(5), 844–862. Scholar
  45. Lee, Y., & Weaver, D. (2014). The tourism area life cycle in Kim Yujeong Literary Village, Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(2), 181–198. Scholar
  46. Lee, S., Lee, S., & Lee, G. (2014). Ecotourists’ motivation and revisit intention: A case study of restored ecological parks in South Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(11), 1327–1344. Scholar
  47. Leung, D., Law, R., van Hoof, H., & Buhalis, D. (2013). Social media in tourism and hospitality: A literature review. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 30(1/2), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Leung, R., Au, N., & Law, R. (2015). The recent Asian wave in tourism research: The case of the journal of travel & amp; tourism marketing. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(1), 28. Scholar
  49. Lim, C., Min, J. C. H., & McAleer, M. (2008). Modelling income effects on long and short haul international travel from Japan. Tourism Management, 29(6), 1099–1109. Scholar
  50. Lin, S., & Zins, A. H. (2016). Intended destination image positioning at sub-provincial administration level in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(11), 1241–1257. Scholar
  51. Liu, C.-H., Horng, J.-S., Chou, S.-F., Chen, Y.-C., Lin, Y.-C., & Zhu, Y.-Q. (2016). An empirical examination of the form of relationship between sustainable tourism experiences and satisfaction. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(7), 717–740. Scholar
  52. Lovelock, B. (2003). A comparative study of environmental NGOs’ perspectives of the tourism industry and modes of action in the South and South-East Asia and Oceania regions. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 8(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Luo, Y., & Deng, J. (2008). The new environmental paradigm and nature-based tourism motivation. Journal of Travel Research, 46(4), 392–402. Scholar
  54. Mak, A. H. N., Wong, K. K. F., & Chang, R. C. Y. (2011). Critical issues affecting the service quality and professionalism of the tour guides in Hong Kong and Macau. Tourism Management, 32, 1442–1452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McDowall, S., & Wang, Y. (2009). An analysis of international tourism development in Thailand: 1994–2007. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 14(4), 351–370. Scholar
  56. McKercher, B., & Ho, P. S. Y. (2006). Assessing the tourism potential of smaller cultural and heritage attractions. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 14(5), 473–488. Scholar
  57. Mena, M. M., Chon, K., & Alampay, R. B. A. (2004). Discovering the potentials of domestic tourism in Southeast Asia from the perspectives of regional demography. Tourism Recreation Research, 29(2), 13–24. Scholar
  58. Mishra, S. S., & Bansal, V. (2017). Role of source-destination proximity in international inbound tourist arrival: Empirical evidences from India. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(5), 540–553. Scholar
  59. Morgan, N. J., Pritchard, A., & Piggott, R. (2003). Destination branding and the role of the stakeholders: The case of new zealand. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 9(3), 285–299. Scholar
  60. Musa, G., Hall, C. M., & Higham, J. E. S. (2004). Tourism sustainability and health impacts in high altitude adventure, cultural and ecotourism destinations: A case study of Nepal’s sagarmatha national park. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 12(4), 306–331. Scholar
  61. Okumus, B., Okumus, F., & McKercher, B. (2007). Incorporating local and international cuisines in the marketing of tourism destinations: The cases of Hong Kong and Turkey. Tourism Management, 28(1), 253–261. Scholar
  62. Oviedo-García, M. Á., Castellanos-Verdugo, M., Vega-Vázquez, M., & Orgaz-Agüera, F. (2017). The mediating roles of the overall perceived value of the ecotourism site and attitudes towards ecotourism in sustainability through the key relationship ecotourism knowledge-ecotourist satisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research, 19(2), 203–213. Scholar
  63. Pai, C.-K., Xia, M. L., & Wang, T.-W. (2014). A comparison of the official tourism website of five east tourism destinations. Information Technology and Tourism, 14(2), 97–117. Scholar
  64. Pan, S., Ting, P.-H., & Bau, D.-Y. (2014). Perceptions of Taipei as revealed in travel blogs: A tale from two sides. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 19(6), 700–720. Scholar
  65. Park, S. H., Lee, C.-K., & Miller, J. C. (2015). A comparative study of the motivations, activities, overall satisfaction, and post-trip behaviors of international tourists in Macau: Mainland Chinese, Hongkongese, Taiwanese, and Westerners. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(10), 1174–1193. Scholar
  66. Pearce, P. L., & Wu, M.-Y. (Eds.). (2016). The world meets Asian tourists. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  67. Prideaux, B. R. (1997). Korean outbound tourism: Australia’s response. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 7(1), 93–102. Scholar
  68. Qiu, S., Li, M., So, S.-I., & Lehto, X. (2015). Competitiveness of Macau in developing the exhibition sector: Can gaming industry contribute? Journal of China Tourism Research, 11(3), 278–296. Scholar
  69. Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & Jaafar, M. (2017). Sustainable tourism development and residents’ perceptions in world heritage site destinations. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(1), 34–48. Scholar
  70. Roque, V., & Raposo, R. (2016). Social media as a communication and marketing tool in tourism: An analysis of online activities from international key player DMO. Anatolia, 27(1), 58–70. Scholar
  71. Sartori, A., Mottironi, C., & Corigliano, M. A. (2012). Tourist destination brand equity and internal stakeholders: An empirical research. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(4), 327–340. Scholar
  72. Semone, P., & Kozak, M. (2012). Towards a Mekong tourism brand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 17(6), 595–614. Scholar
  73. Shakeela, A., & Weaver, D. (2016). The exploratory social-mediatized gaze: Reactions of virtual tourists to an inflammatory YouTube incident. Journal of Travel Research, 55(1), 113–124.Google Scholar
  74. Shakeela, A., & Weaver, D. (2017). The Maldives: Parallel paths of conventional and alternative tourism. In M. Hall & S. J. Page (Eds.), Routledge handbook on tourism in Asia Pacific. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  75. Sigala, M., Christou, E., & Gretzel, U. (Eds.). (2012). Social Media in travel, tourism and hospitality: Theory, practice and cases. London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  76. Simeon, R. (2006). A conceptual model linking brand building strategies and Japanese popular culture. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 24(5), 463–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Skytrax. (2017). The world’s top 100 airports in 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2017, from
  78. Song, H., Sparks, B. A., & Wang, Y. (2017a). Exploring disagreement prevention and resolution in travel decision-making of young Chinese travelers. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 34(2), 257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Song, H.-M., Kim, K.-S., & Yim, B. H. (2017b). The mediating effect of place attachment on the relationship between golf tourism destination image and revisit intention. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 22(11), 1182–1193. Scholar
  80. Tang, C. F. (2011). Old wine in new bottles: Are Malaysia’s tourism markets converging? Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 16(3), 263–272. Scholar
  81. Theerapappisit, P. (2009). Pro-poor ethnic tourism in the Mekong: A study of three approaches in Northern Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 14(2), 201–221. Scholar
  82. Tolkach, D., Chon, K. K. S., & Xiao, H. (2016). Asia pacific tourism trends: Is the future ours to see? Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21(10), 1071–1084. Scholar
  83. Toplin, J. (2017, November 14). Mobile dominates singles’ day. Business insider. Retrieved 1 December, 2017, from
  84. Tsai, S.-P. (2012). Place attachment and tourism marketing: Investigating international tourists in Singapore. International Journal of Tourism Research, 14(2), 139–152. Scholar
  85. Tse, T. S. M., & Zhang, E. Y. (2013). Analysis of blogs and microblogs: A case study of Chinese bloggers sharing their Hong Kong travel experiences. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 18(4), 314–329. Scholar
  86. UNWTO. (2017). UNWTO tourism highlights: 2017 edition. Retrieved on 3 December, 2017, from
  87. Vietnam Tourism. (2016). Chinese tourists. Retrieved on 3 December, 2017, from
  88. Vong, T.-N., Lai, K., & Li, Y. (2016). Sense of place: Affective link missing between casino impact perception and support for casino development? Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 21, S76–S100. Scholar
  89. Wang, Y. (2016). More important than ever: Measuring tourist satisfaction, Griffith Institute for Tourism Research Report, No 10, 2016.Google Scholar
  90. Wang, Y., & Wall, G. (2007). Administrative arrangements and displacement compensation in top-down tourism planning-a case from Hainan Province, China. Tourism Management, 28(1), 70–82. Scholar
  91. Wang, D., Chan, H., & Pan, S. (2015). The impacts of mass media on organic destination image: A case study of Singapore. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 20(8), 860–874. Scholar
  92. Wang, Y., Weaver, D. B., & Kwek, A. (2016). Beyond the mass tourism stereotype: Power and empowerment in Chinese tour packages. Journal of Travel Research, 55(6), 724–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. World Travel & Tourism Council. (2017). Travel and tourism: Economic impact 2017, South East Asia. Retrieved 20 November 2017, from
  94. Yan, G., So, S.-I., Morrison, A. M., & Sun, Y.-H. (2007). Activity segmentation of the international heritage tourism market to Taiwan. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 12(4), 333–347. Scholar
  95. Yang, L., Wall, G., & Smith, S. L. J. (2008). Ethnic tourism development: Chinese government perspectives. Annals of Tourism Research, 35(3), 751–771. Scholar
  96. Yu, L., & Goulden, M. (2006). A comparative analysis of international tourists’ satisfaction in Mongolia. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1331–1342. Scholar
  97. Zsóka, A., Szerényi, Z. M., Széchy, A., & Kocsis, T. (2013). Greening due to environmental education? Environmental knowledge, attitudes, consumer behavior and everyday pro-environmental activities of Hungarian high school and university students. Journal of Cleaner Production, 48(June), 126–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ying Wang
    • 1
  • Aishath Shakeela
    • 1
  • Anna Kwek
    • 1
  • Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore
    • 1
  1. 1.Griffith UniversityNathanAustralia

Personalised recommendations