Improvement of Yeast Fermentation Efficiency Utilizing mRNAs Preferentially Translated Under Translational Repression

  • Sae Kato
  • Shingo Izawa


As their transcription site (nucleus) and translation site (cytoplasm) are separated by the nuclear membrane, eukaryotic microorganisms such as yeast and Aspergillus undergo gene expression regulation differently from prokaryotic microorganisms such as Escherichia coli. In eukaryotic microorganisms, mRNAs synthesized in the nucleus are transported outside after intranuclear processing, which includes addition of 5′ caps and 3′ poly(A) tails, splicing, and formation of nuclear export complexes. Additionally, mRNA nuclear export also occurs selectively under certain stress conditions, and this allows efficient gene expression by retaining nonessential mRNAs in the nucleus while preferentially transporting urgent and highly essential mRNAs to the cytoplasm. Recently, it has lately been proven that specific mRNAs are preferentially and selectively translated under stress conditions that repress overall protein synthesis. These facts suggest that, in addition to transcription regulation, gene expression is also precisely regulated at the mRNA nuclear transport stage and cytoplasmic translation stage. This paper focuses on the preferential and selective translation in yeast cells under stress and introduces recent findings regarding applications of this knowledge.


Translation repression Preferential translation Ethanol stress Lignocellulosic hydrolysates Vanillin 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Applied BiologyKyoto Institute of TechnologyMatsugasaki, Sakyo-kuJapan

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