Using robotic metal inert gas (MIG) welding, WC-TiC-Ni/304 stainless steel was fabricated using pure nickel as welding wire. The welds consisted of the austenitic γ-Ni matrix, dissolved WC, and compound carbide (W, M)C. Electromagnetic stirring-induced (type I), diffusion-induced (type II), and shear-induced (type III) WC migration led to WCa and WCb type migration. The gradient layer and η-phase were formed at the interface. WCa migration (type I and type II) showed that arc plasma provided enough energy for WCa long-range migration from the heat affected zone (HAZ) to the fusion zone. WCb migration (III) exhibited the stress levels to be above the yield stress in the fusion zone. A self-sealing model was put forward to describe WC migration and the formation of gradient layers. The results showed that WC migration not only occurred in the fusion zone, but also in the HAZ, especially near the top surface, which led to gradient layer, η phase and tungsten dissolution-re-precipitation on the surface of WC. The results also indicated that the fusion zone had the ability to cure the cracks itself during the robotic MIG welding.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51475282, 51105240), the “Shu Guang” Project of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and Shanghai Education Development Foundation (13SG54).
Exner HE (1979) Physical and chemical nature of cemented carbides. Int Met Rev 24:149–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sui Y, Luo H, Lv Y et al (2016) Influence of brazing technology on the microstructure and properties of YG20C cemented carbide and 16Mn steel joints. Weld World 60(6):1269–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo Y, Wang Y, Gao B et al (2016) Rapid diffusion bonding of WC-Co cemented carbide to 40Cr steel with Ni interlayer: effect of surface roughness and interlayer thickness. Ceram Int 42(15):16729–16737CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klünsner T, Wurster S, Supancic P et al (2011) Effect of specimen size on the tensile strength of WC-Co hard metal. Acta Mater 59(10):4244–4252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mirski Z, Granat K, Stano S (2016) Possibilities of laser-beam joining cemented carbides to steel. Weld Int 30(3):187–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lay S, Dennadieu P, Loubradou M (2010) Polarity of prismatic facets delimiting WC grains in WC-Co alloys. Micron 41(5):472–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ahn S, Kang S (2008) Dissolution phenomena in the Ti (C0.7N0.3)-WC-Ni system. Int J Refract Metal Hard Mater 26(4):340–345Google Scholar
Li LQ, Liu DJ, Chen YB et al (2009) Electron microscopy study of reaction layers between single-crystal WC particle and Ti-6Al-4V after laser melt injection. Acta Mater 57(12):3606–3614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barbatti C, Garcia J, Liedl G et al (2007) Joining of cemented carbides to steel by laser beam welding. Materialwiss Werkstofftech 38(11):907–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lavergne O, Robaut F, Hodaj F et al (2002) Mechanism of solid-state dissolution of WC in Co-based solutions. Acta Mater 50(7):1683–1692CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cheniti B, Miroud D, Badji R et al (2017) Effect of brazing current on microstructure and mechanical behavior of WC-Co/AISI 1020 steel TIG brazed joint. Int J Refract Metal Hard Mater 64:210–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Su JZ, Guo LJ, Bao NZ et al (2011) Nanostructured WO3/BiVO4 heterojunction films for efficient photo electro-chemical water splitting. Nano Lett 11(5):1928–1933CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zou J, Sun SK, Zhang GJ et al (2011) Chemical reactions, anisotropic grain growth and sintering mechanisms of self-reinforced ZrB2-SiC doped with WC. J Am Ceram Soc 94(5):1575–1583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Guo J, Fang ZZ, Fan P et al (2011) Kinetics of the formation of metal binder gradient in WC-Co by carbon diffusion induced liquid migration. Acta Mater 59(11):4719–4731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zhang XZ, Liu GW, Tao JN et al (2017) Vacuum brazing of WC-8Co cemented carbides to carbon steel using pure Cu and Ag-28Cu as filler metal. J Mater Eng Perform 26(2):488–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Niu L, Hojamberdiev M, Xu YH (2010) Preparation of in situ-formed WC/Fe composite on gray cast iron substrate by a centrifugal casting process. J Mater Process Tech 210(14):1986–1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Konyashin I, Hlawatschek S, Ries B et al (2009) On the mechanism of WC coarsening in WC–Co hard metals with various carbon contents. Int J Refract Metal Hard Mater 27(2):234–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar