Migration Behavior of Tungsten Carbide in the Dissimilar Joints of WC-TiC-Ni/304 Stainless Steel Using Robotic MIG Welding

  • Guotao Ying
  • Hongying Gong
  • Peiquan Xu
Conference paper
Part of the Transactions on Intelligent Welding Manufacturing book series (TRINWM)


Using robotic metal inert gas (MIG) welding, WC-TiC-Ni/304 stainless steel was fabricated using pure nickel as welding wire. The welds consisted of the austenitic γ-Ni matrix, dissolved WC, and compound carbide (W, M)C. Electromagnetic stirring-induced (type I), diffusion-induced (type II), and shear-induced (type III) WC migration led to WCa and WCb type migration. The gradient layer and η-phase were formed at the interface. WCa migration (type I and type II) showed that arc plasma provided enough energy for WCa long-range migration from the heat affected zone (HAZ) to the fusion zone. WCb migration (III) exhibited the stress levels to be above the yield stress in the fusion zone. A self-sealing model was put forward to describe WC migration and the formation of gradient layers. The results showed that WC migration not only occurred in the fusion zone, but also in the HAZ, especially near the top surface, which led to gradient layer, η phase and tungsten dissolution-re-precipitation on the surface of WC. The results also indicated that the fusion zone had the ability to cure the cracks itself during the robotic MIG welding.


Robotic MIG welding Electromagnet-induced migration Diffusion-induced migration Shear-induced migration Gradient layer 



This work is financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51475282, 51105240), the “Shu Guang” Project of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission and Shanghai Education Development Foundation (13SG54).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Materials Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering ScienceShanghaiChina

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