Research Methodology

  • Mubashir Gulzar
Part of the Springer Theses book series (Springer Theses)


A step by step and extensive research methodology has been adopted for effective bio-based lubrication of piston ring–cylinder liner interaction. This endeavor began by investigating palm TMP ester as bio-based lubricant to gain an understanding of the tribological performance for piston ring–cylinder liner interaction in the absence of any additive. It was followed by the investigation of suitable type and concentration of nanoparticles for stable and tribologically improved suspensions. Oleic acid (OA) was used as anionic surfactant to improve the dispersion stability. Ultrasonic dispersion technique was adopted for homogenous and stable suspensions. UV-vis spectroscopy was carried out to analyze the dispersion stability of suspensions. Friction and wear characteristics of lubricant samples were investigated by simulating the engine piston ring–cylinder contact in laboratory controlled conditions.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MalayaKuala LumpurMalaysia

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