Advertisement

Advancement in Medicinal Mushroom Research

  • V. P. Sharma
  • Sudheer Kumar Annepu
Chapter

Abstract

For thousands of years, mushrooms have been prized as highly nutritious foods by many civilizations in the world. In addition to their nutritional properties, the people of orient region are using a large number of edible and nonedible mushrooms for curing various ailments. Mushrooms fall somewhere in between the true plants and animals and have been mentioned, reported and researched upon to possess unique and potent pharmacological properties. Many such claims have also been validated, and new therapeutic applications have been developed as result of extensive scientific studies. These are being produced and traded in significant quantities – the annual trade in the medicinal mushrooms and their products is roughly estimated around $24 bn. Though more than 20 species of the medicinal mushrooms are currently being produced and commercially traded, the value-wise most important ones are the species of Ganoderma, Grifola, Cordyceps, Lentinula, Hericium and Schizophyllum of which Ganoderma is the unquestioned “king of medicinal mushrooms”. Many of these mushrooms are known for its anticancer properties, but they also possess other potentially important immunological and curative properties such as free radical scavenging, antiviral, antihypercholesterolaemia, antimicrobial, detoxification, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic effects (Wasser 2011).

References

  1. Bisen PS, Baghel RK, Sanodiya BS, Thakur GS, Prasad GBKS (2010) Lentinus edodes: a macrofungus with pharmacological activities. Curr Med Chem 17(22):2419–2430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bobek P, Ozdin L, Galbavy S (1998) Dose and time dependent hypocholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus ) in rats. Nutrition 14:282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Borchers AT, Stern JS, Hackman RM, Keen CL, Gershwin EM (1999) Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Soc Exp Biol Med 221:281–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen Y, Zhou M (1997) Damage to macrophages by tetrabutyl hydroperoxide and the protective actions of the protein-bound polysaccharide Krestin. Med Sci Res 25:606–609Google Scholar
  5. Chihara G, Hamuia J, Maeda YY, Arai Y, Fukuoka F (1970) Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked antitumour activity especially lentinan from Lentinus edodes. Cancer Res 30:2776–2781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fullerton SA, Samadi AA et al (2000) Induction of apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells with β -glucan (Maitake mushroom polysaccharide). Mol Urol 4:7–13Google Scholar
  7. Gao YH (2000) The miracle herb, scientific reports of Ganoderma. Yuangizai Publisher, TaipeiGoogle Scholar
  8. Green S, Weiss G (1992) Southern Oncology Group standard response criteria, endpoint definition and toxicity criteria. Investig New Drugs 10:239–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hashimoto T, Nonaka Y, Minato K, Kawakami S, Mizuno T, Fukuda I, Kanazawa K, Ashida H (2002) Suppressive effect of polysaccharides from the edible and medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the expression of cytochrome P450s in mice. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 66(7):1610–1614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N et al (1993) Effects of Krestin (PSK) in adjuvant treatment on the prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res 13:1815–1820Google Scholar
  11. Hiroaki N, Keiko K (1997) Effect of maitake D-fraction on cancer prevention. Ann N Y Acad Sci 833(1 Cancer):204–207Google Scholar
  12. Hobbs C (1995) Grifola frondosa monograph. Botanica Press, Santa Cruz, pp 110–115Google Scholar
  13. Ikekawa T (2001) Beneficial effects of edible and medicinal mushrooms in health care. Int J Med Mushrooms 3:291–298Google Scholar
  14. Ikuzawa M, Matsunaga K, Nishiyama S (1988) Fate and distribution of an antitumor protein bound polysaccharide PSK (Krestin). Int J Immunopharmacol 10:415–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kiho T, Merimoto H, Kobayashi T, Usiu S, Ukai S, Aizawa K, Inakuma T (2000) Effect of polysaccharide (TAP) from the fruiting bodies of Tremella aurantia on glucose metabolism in mouse live. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 64:417–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kobayashi H, Kariya K (1994) Suppressive effects on cancer cell proliferation of the enhancement of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity associated with the protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor. Cancer Biother 9:171–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Komatsu N, OKuBo S, Kikumoto S, Kimura K, Saito G et al (1969) Host-mediated anti-tumour action of schizophyllan, a glucan produced by Schizophyllum commune. GANN Jpn J Cancer Res 60:137–144Google Scholar
  18. Kurashiga S, Akuzawa Y, Eudo F (1997) Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus administration on cancer outbreaks and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 19:175–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu JX, Zhou JY (1993) Phase II clinical trial for PSP capsules. PSP International Symposium. Fudan University Press, ShanghaiGoogle Scholar
  20. Mizuno T (1995) Bioactive biomolecules of mushrooms: food functions and medicinal effects of mushroom fungi. Food Rev Int 11:7–21Google Scholar
  21. Morimoto T, Ogawa M (1996) Postoperative adjuvant randomised trial comparing chemo endocrine therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy for patients with Stage II breast cancer: 5-year results from the Nishimihou Cooperative Study Group of adjuvant chemo endocrine therapy for breast cancer (ACETBC) of Japan. Eur J Cancer 32A:235–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Nanba H (1995) Activity of Maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 768:243–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Okamoto T, Kodoi R, Nonaka Y, Fukuda I, Hashimoto T, Kanazawa K, Mizuno M, Ashida H (2004) Lentinan from shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes) suppresses expression of cytochrome P4501A subfamily in the mouse liver. Biofactors 21:407–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sreenivasulu K, Vijayalakshmi M, Sambasivarao K (2011) TERT gene inhibition studies in cancer cells by using polysaccharide lentinan. J Med Genet Genomics 3(1):7–12Google Scholar
  25. Stephens LC, Ang KK, Schulthesis TE (1991) Apoptosis in irradiated murine tumours. Radiat Res 127:308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Sugiyama K, Yamakawa A (1996) Dietary eritadenine-induced alteration of molecular species composition of phospholipids in rats. Lipids 31:399–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wasser SP (2011) Current findings, future trends, and unsolved problems in studies of medicinal mushrooms. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 89:1323–1332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wasser SP, Akavia E (2008) Regulatory issues of mushrooms as functional foods and dietary supplements: safety and efficacy. In: Cheung PCK (ed) Mushrooms as functional foods. Wiley, New York, pp 199–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xu GM (1993) Phase I clinical reports of PSP capsules. PSP international symposium anthology of theses and abstracts, pp. 179–182Google Scholar
  30. Zhang M, Cui SW, Cheung PCK (2007) Antitumor polysaccharides from mushrooms: a review on their isolation process, structural characteristics and antitumor activity. Trends Food Sci Technol 18:4–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. P. Sharma
    • 1
  • Sudheer Kumar Annepu
    • 1
  1. 1.ICAR-Directorate of Mushroom ResearchChambaghat, SolanIndia

Personalised recommendations