Advertisement

Medicinal Plants as Novel Promising Therapeutics for Neuroprotection and Neuroregeneration

  • Gurcharan Kaur
  • Hardeep Kataria
  • Rachana Mishra
Chapter

Abstract

Ayurveda is the most ancient and the traditional medicinal system with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent. Modernized practices derived from traditional Ayurvedic medicinal system are a type of complementary or alternative medicine (Jafari et al. 2014). High costs and increased side effects of new drugs, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, and microbial resistance are some of the reasons that have contributed in directing the public interest towards complementary and alternative medicine. Ayurvedic therapies have been integrated in complementary and alternative medicine as preventive measures to treat wide range of chronic diseases due to their least adverse effects compared to conventional medicines (Humber 2002; Patwardhan et al. 2004; Jafari et al. 2014). Moreover, Ayurveda formulations may also be used in combination with other drugs without any adverse drug-drug interactions (Humber 2002; Patwardhan et al. 2004). The concept of “one drug-one target-one disease” in modern medicines has provided remarkable success in providing highly selective and potent magic bullets, especially for certain highly contagious diseases. In several other diseases especially lifestyle disorders, this approach has shown major disadvantages where a disease manifestation and progression involve multifactorial and complex signaling pathways. Herbal products are being actively used as means of alternative medicine because of their multicomponent approach to target multiple sites for their mode of action (Bent and Ko 2004; Tachjian et al. 2010; Pallas et al. 2013). Moreover, their formulation in single delivery system and their least side effects make them promising candidates to treat several central nervous system ailments (Borisy et al. 2003; Keith et al. 2005). Furthermore, these herbal formulations can be used in combination with other drugs without any adverse drug-drug interactions (Hopkins 2008).

References

  1. Agrawal SS, Naqvi S, Gupta SK, Srivastava S (2012) Prevention and management of diabetic retinopathy in STZ diabetic rats by Tinospora cordifolia and its molecular mechanisms. Food Chem Toxicol 50(9):3126–3132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad M, Saleem S, Ahmad AS, Ansari MA, Yousuf S, Hoda MN, Islam F (2005) Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera on 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinsonism in rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 24:137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed ME, Javed H, Khan MM, Vaibhav K, Ahmad A, Khan A et al (2013) Attenuation of oxidative damage-associated cognitive decline by Withania somnifera in rat model of streptozotocin-induced cognitive impairment. Protoplasma 250(5):1067–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ansari JA, Rastogi N, Ahmad MK, Mahdi AA, Khan AR, Thakur R et al (2017) ROS mediated pro-apoptotic effects of Tinospora cordifolia on breast cancer cells. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 9:89–100Google Scholar
  5. Aranha I, Clement F, Venkatesh YP (2012) Immunostimulatory properties of the major protein from the stem of the Ayurvedic medicinal herb, guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). J Ethnopharmacol 139(2):366–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagli E, Goussia A, Moschos MM, Agnantis N, Kitsos G (2016) Natural compounds and neuroprotection: mechanisms of action and novel delivery systems. In Vivo 30(5):535–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Baliga MS, Rao S, Rai MP, D’souza P (2016) Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.(Holy Basil): a memoir. J Cancer Res Ther 12(1):20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bent S, Ko R (2004) Commonly used herbal medicines in the United States: a review. Am J Med 116(7):478–485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bhatia P, Rattan S, Cavallius J, Clark BF (1987) Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), a so-called rejuvenator, inhibits growth and macromolecular synthesis on human cells. Med Sci Res 15:515–516Google Scholar
  10. Bhatnagar M, Sharma D, Salvi M (2009) Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera dunal: a possible mechanism. Neurochem Res 34:1975–1983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya A, Sairam K, Ghosal S (2000) Anxiolytic-antidepressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides: an experimental study. Phytomedicine 7:463–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhattacharya A, Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK (2001) Anti-oxidant effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides in chronic footshock stress-induced perturbations of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rat frontal cortex and striatum. J Ethnopharmacol 74:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bhattacharya SK, Bhattacharya D, Sairam K, Ghosal S (2002) Effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia. Phytomedicine 9:167–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bishayi B, Roychowdhury S, Ghosh S, Sengupta M (2002) Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. J Toxicol Sci 27(3):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borisy AA, Elliott PJ, Hurst NW, Lee MS, Lehar J, Price ER et al (2003) Systematic discovery of multicomponent therapeutics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100(13):7977–7982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chainani-Wu N (2003) Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma Longa). J Altern Complement Med 9(1):161–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chaudhary R, Jahan S, Goyal PK (2008) Chemopreventive potential of an Indian medicinal plant (Tinospora cordifolia) on skin carcinogenesis in mice. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 27(3):233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chintalwar G, Jain A, Sipahimalani A, Banerji A, Sumariwalla P, Ramakrishnan R, Sainis K (1999) An immunologically active arabinogalactan from Tinospora cordifolia. Phytochemistry 52(6):1089–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dar NJ, Hamid A, Ahmad M (2015) Pharmacologic overview of Withania somnifera, the Indian Ginseng. Cell Mol Life Sci 72(23):4445–4460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dar AP, R Singh L, A Kamal M, A Dar T (2016) Unique medicinal properties of Withania somnifera: phytochemical constituents and protein component. Curr Pharm Des 22(5):535–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Deole YS, Chavan SS, Ashok BK, Ravishankar B, Thakar AB, Chandola HM (2011) Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana tablet (a compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice. AYU 32(3):373–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Desai VR, Ramkrishnan R, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB (2007) G1-4A, an immunomodulatory polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, modulates macrophage responses and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock. Int Immunopharmacol 7(10):1375–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dhanasekaran M, Baskar AA, Ignacimuthu S, Agastian P, Duraipandiyan V (2009) Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodanediterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Investig New Drugs 27(4):347–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dhingra D, Goyal PK (2008) Inhibition of MAO and GABA: probable mechanisms for antidepressant-like activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 46(4):212PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gautam A, Wadhwa R, Thakur MK (2013) Involvement of hippocampal Arc in amnesia and its recovery by alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves. Neurobiol Learn Mem 106:177–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Godara R, Katoch M, Katoch R, Yadav A, Parveen S, Vij B et al (2014) In vitro Acaricidal activity of Atropa belladonna and its components, scopolamine and atropine, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The Scientific World Journal 2014:713170.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/713170 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Goel HC, Prem Kumar I, Rana SV (2002) Free radical scavenging and metal chelation by Tinospora cordifolia, a possible role in radio protection. Indian J Exp Biol 40:727–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Goel HC, Prasad J, Singh S, Sagar RK, Agrawala PK, Bala M et al (2004) Radioprotective potential of an herbal extract of Tinospora cordifolia. J Radiat Res 45(1):61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gupta M, Kaur G (2016) Aqueous extract from the Withania somnifera leaves as a potential anti-neuroinflammatory agent: a mechanistic study. J Neuroinflammation 13(1):193.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12974-016-0650-3 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Guruprasad KP, Mascarenhas R, Gopinath PM, Satyamoorthy K (2010) Studies on Brahma rasayana in male Swiss albino mice: chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities. J Ayurveda Integrative Med 1(1):40–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hamsa TP, Kuttan G (2012) Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates urotoxic effect of cyclophosphamide by modulating GSH and cytokine levels. Exp Toxicol Pathol 64(4):307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hashiguchi M, Ohta Y, Shimizu M, Maruyama J, Mochizuki M (2015) Meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of Ginkgo biloba extract for the treatment of dementia. J Pharm Health Care Sci 1(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s40780-015-0014-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hegi ME, Diserens AC, Gorlia T, Hamou MF, de Tribolet N, Weller M et al (2005) MGMT gene silencing and benefit from temozolomide in glioblastoma. N Engl J Med 352(10):997–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hopkins AL (2008) Network pharmacology: the next paradigm in drug discovery. Nat Chem Biol 4(11):682–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Humber JM (2002) The role of complementary and alternative medicine. JAMA 288(13):1655–1656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jafari S, Abdollahi M, Saeidnia S (2014) Personalized medicine: a confluence of traditional and contemporary medicine. Altern Ther Health Med 20(5):31–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Jagetia GC, Rao SK (2006) Evaluation of the antineoplastic activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing mice. Biol Pharm Bull 29(3):460–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jain VK, Shete A (2010) Antipsychotic activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in amphetamine challenged mice model. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 1(1):30–33PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Jain S, Shukla SD, Sharma K, Bhatnagar M (2001) Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat. Phytother Res 15:544–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jayaprakasam B, Padmanabhan K, Nair MG (2010) Withanamides in Withania somnifera fruit protect PC-12 cells from beta-amyloid responsible for Alzheimer’s disease. Phytother Res 24:859–863PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaur T, Singh H, Mishra R, Manchanda S, Gupta M, Saini V, Kaur G (2017) Withania somnifera as a potential anxiolytic and immunomodulatory agent in acute sleep deprived female Wistar rats. Mol Cell Biochem 427(1–2):91–101Google Scholar
  42. Keith CT, Borisy AA, Stockwell BR (2005) Multicomponent therapeutics for networked systems. Nat Rev Drug Discov 4(1):71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kinghorn AD, Pan L, Fletcher JN, Chai H (2011) The relevance of higher plants in lead compound discovery programs. J Nat Prod 74(6):1539–1555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Konar A, Shah N, Singh R, Saxena N, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R, Thakur MK (2011) Protective role of ashwagandha leaf extract and its component withanone on scopolamine-induced changes in the brain and brain-derived cells. PLoS One 6:e27265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Koppada R, Norozian FM, Torbati D, Kalomiris S, Ramachandran C, Totapally BR (2009) Physiological effects of a novel immune stimulator drug,(1, 4)-α-d-glucan, in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 105(4):217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kosaraju J, Chinni S, Roy PD, Kannan E, Antony AS, Kumar MS (2014) Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism. Indian J Pharmacol 46(2):176–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Zhao J, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Komatsu K (2002) Axon- or dendrite-predominant outgrowth induced by constituents from Ashwagandha. Neuroreport 13:1715–1720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K (2005) Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br J Pharmacol 144:961–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K (2006) Withanoside IV and its active metabolite, sominone, attenuate Abeta(25–35)-induced neurodegeneration. Eur J Neurosci 23:1417–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kulatunga RDH, Dave AR, Baghel MS (2012) Clinical efficacy of Guduchyadi Medhya Rasayana on senile memory impairment. AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda) 33(2):202–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kulkarni SK, Dhir A (2008) Withania somnifera: an Indian ginseng. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 32(5):1093–1105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kumar A, Kulkarni SK (2006) Effect of BR-16A (Mentat), a polyherbal formulation on drug-induced catalepsy in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 44:45–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kumar P, Kumar A (2009) Possible neuroprotective effect of Withania somnifera root extract against 3-nitropropionic acid-induced behavioral, biochemical, and mitochondrial dysfunction in an animal model of Huntington’s disease. J Med Food 12:591–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kumar S, Seal CJ, Howes MJ, Kite GC, Okello EJ (2010) In vitro protective effects of Withania somnifera (L.) dunal root extract against hydrogen peroxide and beta-amyloid(1-42)-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. Phytother Res 24:1567–1574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kumar S, Harris RJ, Seal CJ, Okello EJ (2011) An aqueous extract of Withania somnifera root inhibits amyloid beta fibril formation in vitro. Phytother Res 26(1):113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Leyon PV, Kuttan G (2004) Inhibitory effect of a polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia on experimental metastasis. J Ethnopharmacol 90(2):233–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Malhotra CL, Mehta VL, Das PK, Dhalla NS (1965) Studies on Withania-ashwagandha, Kaul. V. The effect of total alkaloids (ashwagandholine) on the central nervous system. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 9:127–136PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Manchanda S, Kaur G (2017) Withania somnifera leaf alleviates cognitive dysfunction by enhancing hippocampal plasticity in high fat diet induced obesity model. BMC Complement Altern Med 17(1):136.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1652-0 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. Manchanda S, Mishra R, Singh R, Kaur T, Kaur G (2017) Aqueous leaf extract of Withania somnifera as a potential neuroprotective agent in sleep-deprived rats: a mechanistic study. Mol Neurobiol 54(4):3050–3061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Minhas U, Minz R, Bhatnagar A (2011) Prophylactic effect of Withania somnifera on inflammation in a non-autoimmune prone murine model of lupus. Drug Discoveries Ther 5(4):195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Mishra R, Kaur G (2013) Aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of glioblastomas. PLoS One 8(10):e78764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mishra R, Kaur G (2015) Tinospora cordifolia induces differentiation and senescence pathways in neuroblastoma cells. Mol Neurobiol 52(1):719–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mishra R, Manchanda S, Gupta M, Kaur T, Saini V, Sharma A, Kaur G (2016) Tinospora cordifolia ameliorates anxiety-like behavior and improves cognitive functions in acute sleep deprived rats. Sci Rep 5(6):25564.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep25564 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nadig PD, Revankar RR, Dethe SM, Narayanswamy SB, Aliyar MA (2012) Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on experimental diabetic neuropathy. Indian J Pharm 44(5):580–583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nagashayana N, Sankarankutty P, Nampoothiri MR, Mohan PK, Mohanakumar KP (2000) Association of L-DOPA with recovery following Ayurveda medication in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Sci 176:124–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Naidu PS, Singh A, Kulkarni SK (2006) Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia and cognitive dysfunction. Phytother Res 20:140–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Nair RB, Nair KV, Nair AR, Nair CPR (1992) Anti diabetic activity of amrithadi churnam. Anc Sci Life 12(1–2):280PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Pallas M, Porquet D, Vicente A, Sanfeliu C (2013) Resveratrol: new avenues for a natural compound in neuroprotection. Curr Pharm Des 19(38):6726–6731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pandey VK, Shankar BS, Sainis KB (2012) G1-4 A, an arabinogalactan polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia increases dendritic cell immunogenicity in a murine lymphoma model. Int Immunopharmacol 14(4):641–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Parihar MS, Hemnani T (2003) Phenolic antioxidants attenuate hippocampal neuronal cell damage against kainic acid induced excitotoxicity. J Biosci 28:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Parihar MS, Chaudhary M, Shetty R, Hemnani T (2004) Susceptibility of hippocampus and cerebral cortex to oxidative damage in streptozotocin treated mice: prevention by extracts of Withania somnifera and Aloe vera. J Clin Neurosci 11:397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Patel MB, Mishra S (2011) Hypoglycemic activity of alkaloidal fraction of Tinospora cordifolia. Phytomedicine 18:1045–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Patwardhan B, Vaidya AD, Chorghade M (2004) Ayurveda and natural products drug discovery. Curr Sci-Bangalore 86(6):789–799Google Scholar
  74. Pawar P, Gilda S, Sharma S, Jagtap S, Paradkar A, Mahadik K et al (2011) Rectal gel application of Withania somnifera root extract expounds anti-inflammatory and muco-restorative activity in TNBS-induced inflammatory bowel disease. BMC Complement Altern Med 11(1):34.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-34 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Pingali U, Pilli R, Fatima N (2014) Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants. Pharm Res 6(1):12–18Google Scholar
  76. Raghu R, Sharma D, Ramakrishnan R, Khanam S, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB (2009) Molecular events in the activation of B cells and macrophages by a non-microbial TLR4 agonist, G1-4A from Tinospora cordifolia. Immunol Lett 123:60–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. RajaSankar S, Manivasagam T, Surendran S (2009a) Ashwagandha leaf extract: a potential agent in treating oxidative damage and physiological abnormalities seen in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett 454:11–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. RajaSankar S, Manivasagam T, Sankar V, Prakash S, Muthusamy R, Krishnamurti A, Surendran S (2009b) Withania somnifera root extract improves catecholamines and physiological abnormalities seen in a Parkinson’s disease model mouse. J Ethnopharmacol 125:369–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rajendrana R, Balachandarb S (2013) Review on Ocimum tenuiflorum-A potential herb for drinking water disinfection. South Asian J Biol Sci 3(2):1–10Google Scholar
  80. Rao SK, Rao PS (2010) Alteration in the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells by dichloromethane extract of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). Integr Cancer Ther 9:378–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rao PR, Kumar VK, Viswanath RK, Subbaraju GV (2005) Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 28:2319–2322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Karuna R, Saralakumari D (2009) Preventive effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol 47:2224–2229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Russo A, Izzo AA, Cardile V, Borrelli F, Vanella A (2001) Indian medicinal plants as antiradicals and DNA cleavage protectors. Phytomedicine 8:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Saha S, Ghosh S (2012) Tinospora cordifolia: one plant, many roles. Anc Sci Life 31:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sankar SR, Manivasagam T, Krishnamurti A, Ramanathan M (2007) The neuroprotective effect of Withania somnifera root extract in MPTP-intoxicated mice: an analysis of behavioral and biochemical variables. Cellular Mol Biol Lett 12:473–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sarokte AS, Rao MV (2013) Effects of Medhya Rasayana and Yogic practices in improvement of short-term memory among school-going children. Int Q J Res Ayurveda 34:383–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schliebs R, Liebmann A, Bhattacharya SK, Kumar A, Ghosal S, Bigl V (1997) Systemic administration of defined extracts from Withania somnifera (Indian Ginseng) and Shilajit differentially affects cholinergic but not glutamatergic and GABAergic markers in rat brain. Neurochem Int 30:181–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sengupta M, Sharma GD, Chakraborty B (2011) Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl 4 intoxicated male albino mice. BMC Complement Altern Med 11:102.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-11-102 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. Shah N, Kataria H, Kaul SC, Ishii T, Kaur G, Wadhwa R (2009) Effect of the alcoholic extract of Ashwagandha leaves and its components on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of glioblastoma cells: combinational approach for enhanced differentiation. Cancer Sci 100:1740–1747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Sharma V, Pandey D (2010) Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia against lead-induced hepatotoxicity. Toxicol Int 17:12–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sharma P, Parmar J, Sharma P, Verma P, Goyal PK (2011) Radiation-induced testicular injury and its amelioration by Tinospora cordifolia (an Indian medicinal plant) extract. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011:643847.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/643847 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Sharma HS, Castellani RJ, Smith MA, Sharma A (2012) The blood-brain barrier in Alzheimer’s disease: novel therapeutic targets and nanodrug delivery. Int Rev Neurobiol 102:47–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Singh N, Singh SM, Shrivastava P (2005) Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on the antitumor activity of tumor-associated macrophages-derived dendritic cells. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 27:1–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Singh RP, Banerjee S, Kumar PVS, Raveesha KA, Rao AR (2006) Tinospora cordifolia induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine 13:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Singh N, Bhalla M, de Jager P, Gilca M (2011) An overview on ashwagandha: a Rasayana (rejuvenator) of Ayurveda. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 8(5S):208–213PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Solanki I, Parihar P, Parihar MS (2016) Neurodegenerative diseases: from available treatments to prospective herbal therapy. Neurochem Int 95:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Subramanian M, Chintalwar GJ, Chattopadhyay S (2003) Radioprotective property of polysaccharide in Tinospora cordifolia. Indian J Biochem Biophys 40(1):22–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Tachjian A, Maria V, Jahangir A (2010) Use of herbal products and potential interactions in patients with cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol 55(6):515–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Thippeswamy G, Salimath BP (2007) Induction of caspase-3 activated DNase mediated apoptosis by hexane fraction of Tinospora cordifolia in EAT cells. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 23(2):212–220Google Scholar
  100. Thippeswamy G, Sheela ML, Salimath BP (2008) Octacosanol isolated from Tinospora cordifolia downregulates VEGF gene expression by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-B and its DNA binding activity. Eur J Pharmacol 588(2–3):141–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tiwari M, Dwivedi UN, Kakkar P (2014) Tinospora cordifolia extract modulates COX-2, iNOS, ICAM-1, pro-inflammatory cytokines and redox status in murine model of asthma. J Ethnsopharmacol 153(2):326–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tohda C (2008) Overcoming several neurodegenerative diseases by traditional medicines: the development of therapeutic medicines and unraveling pathophysiological mechanisms. Yakugakuzasshi J Pharm Soc Jpn 128(8):1159–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tohda C, Joyashiki E (2009) Sominone enhances neurite outgrowth and spatial memory mediated by the neurotrophic factor receptor, RET. Br J Pharmacol 157:1427–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Tohda C, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K (2000) Dendrite extension by methanol extract of Ashwagandha (roots of Withania somnifera) in SK-N-SH cells. Neuroreport 11:1981–1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tohda C, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K (2005) Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network. Neurosignals 14:34–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Velazquez EA, Kimura D, Torbati D, Ramachandran C, Totapally BR (2009) Immunological response to (1,4)-α-d-glucan in the lung and spleen of endotoxin-stimulated juvenile rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 105:301–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Westphal M, Hilt DC, Bortey E, Delavault P, Olivares R, Warnke PC, Ram Z (2003) A phase 3 trial of local chemotherapy with biodegradable carmustine (BCNU) wafers (Gliadel wafers) in patients with primary malignant glioma. Neuro-Oncology 5:79–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yan H, Parsons DW, Jin G, McLendon R, Rasheed BA, Yuan W, Friedman H (2009) IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in gliomas. N Engl J Med 360:765–773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yu MS, Leung SKY, Lai SW, Che CM, Zee SY, So KF et al (2005) Neuroprotective effects of anti-aging oriental medicine Lycium barbarum against β-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity. Exp Gerontol 40(8):716–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Zhao J, Nakamura N, Hattori M, Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K (2002) Withanolide derivatives from the roots of Withania somnifera and their neurite outgrowth activities. Chem Pharm Bull 50(6):760–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gurcharan Kaur
    • 1
  • Hardeep Kataria
    • 2
  • Rachana Mishra
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia
  2. 2.Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Regenerative Medicine Program, Spinal Cord Research CentreUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, College of MedicineUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations