This book attempts to analyze the domestic sources of Chinese foreign policy from historical and comparative perspectives in the wake of the rise of China. It is the product of a collaborative effort between Taiwanese and Japanese scholars in the fields of international relations and comparative politics. Instead of focusing on detailed, fragmented events or abstract statistical models, chapters of this book shed light on the application of theories and policies to the topic under deliberation. Three key dimensions of analysis are integrated into this book: historical trajectory, domestic linkage, and new policy momentum. The authors in this collective work argue that China’s current and future patterns of foreign policy must be understood in the context of the historical evolution of the past. By the same token, given the entangled situation of the domestic transition, China’s external behaviors are closely linked with political, economic, as well as social concerns in the domestic arena. With the above-mentioned hypotheses in mind, the chapters in this book include a macro, integrated vision of the rise of China with a long-term vision. Historical and cultural factors, from the Taiwanese as well as Japanese perspectives, are considered as a pertinent component in linking domestic politics and foreign policy in China. Moreover, future-oriented policy matters, such as internationalization of the Chinese currency and Artic diplomacy, are also explained in this book.