Challenges in Implementation of Virtual Synchronous Generator

  • Ganesh N. Jadhav
  • Sadik J. Shaikh
  • Omkar N. Buwa
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 487)


Grid-connected distributed energy resources (DERs) along with conventional power plants are the best solution to meet the increasing energy demand. But higher penetration level of these DERs may affect the system stability and its performance. DERs do not contribute any inertia unlike synchronous generators (SG) use conventionally. Absence of inertia results in large frequency variation, leading system to instability. To stabilize the system, virtual inertia can be added using short-term energy storage. This concept of virtual inertia is termed as virtual synchronous generator (VSG). This may be the basis for future grids with 100% renewable in India. The use of VSGs into the DERs interface to grid and off-grid is having several challenges. Electrical industry reliably integrates large amount of DGs/RESs into system; hence, it is important to pay attention for managing number of VSGs in the grid. The main aspect is to handle the changes in the system due to VSGs and to make the system robust, flexible and reliable. This article reviews the basic challenges in the implementation of VSG.


Distributed energy resources Virtual synchronous generators Renewable energy sources Distributed generators State of charge Point of common coupling 


  1. 1.
    Government of India Ministry of Power Central Electricity Authority (2006) Draft national electricity plan, Dec 2016Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lasseter RH, Paigi P (2004) Microgrid: a conceptual solution in power electronics specialists conference, PESC 04. In: IEEE 35th Annual, vol 6, June 2004, pp 4285–4290Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang B, Sun M, Dong B (2011) The existed problems and possible solutions of distributed generation microgrid operation. In: Power and energy engineering conference (APPEEC), Asia-Pacific, Mar 2011, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang H, Li S (2011) Research on microgrid. In: International conference on advanced power system automation and protection (APAP), vol 1, Oct 2011, pp 595–598Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ulbig A, Borsche TS, Andersson G (2013) Impact of low rotational inertia on power system stability and operation. ArXiv e-printsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abreu LVL, Shahidehpour M (2006) Wind energy and power system inertia. In: 2006 IEEE power engineering society general meeting, p 6Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bevrani H, Ise T, Miura Y (2014) Virtual synchronous generators: a survey and new perspectives. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 54:244–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Karapanos V, de Haan S, Zwetsloot K (2011) Real time simulation of a power system with vsg hardware in the loop. In: IECON 2011 37th annual conference of the IEEE industrial electronics society, Nov 2011, pp 3748–3754Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yu M, Dyko A, Roscoe A, Booth C, Ierna R, Urdal H, Zhu J (2015) Effects of swing equation based inertial response (sebir) control on penetration limits of nonsynchronous generation in the gb power system. In: International conference on renewable power generation (RPG 2015), Oct 2015, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Albu M, Calin M, Federenciuc D, Diaz J (2011) The measurement layer of the virtual synchronous generator operation in the field test. In: IEEE international workshop on applied measurements for power systems (AMPS), Sept 2011, pp 85–89Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nicastri A, Nagliero A (2010) Comparison and evaluation of the pll techniques for the design of the grid-connected inverter systems. In: IEEE international symposium on industrial electronics, July 2010, pp 3865–3870Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buwa ON, Jadhav GN (2016) A dissertation report on virtual synchronous generatorGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Arricibita D, Sanchis P, Marroyo L (2016) Virtual synchronous generators classification and common trends. In: IECON 2016 42nd annual conference of the IEEE industrial electronics society, Oct 2016, pp 2433–2438Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xiong L, Liu X, Wang F, Zhuo F (2016) Static synchronous generator model for investigating dynamic behaviors and stability issues of grid tied inverters. In: IEEE applied power electronics conference and exposition (APEC), Mar 2016, pp 2742–2747Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Du Y, Guerrero JM, Chang L, Su J, Mao M (2013) Modeling, analysis, and design of a frequency droop based virtual synchronous generator for microgrid applications. In: IEEE ECCE Asia Downunder, June 2013, pp 643–649Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ashabani M, Freijedo FD, Golestan S, Guerrero JM (2016) Inducverters: PLL-less converters with auto synchronization and emulated inertia capability. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 7(3):1660–1674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen Y, Hesse R, Turschner D, Beck HP (2011) Improving the grid power quality using virtual synchronous machines. In: International conference on power engineering, energy and electrical drives, May 2011, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    van Wesenbeeck MPN, de Haan SWH, Varela P, Visscher K (2009) Grid tied converter with virtual kinetic storage. In: IEEE Bucharest PowerTech, June 2009, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Karapanos V, Kotsampopoulos P, Hatziargyriou N (2015) Performance of the linear and binary algorithm of virtual synchronous generators for the emulation of rotational inertia. Electr Power Syst Res 123:119–127. [Online]. Available:// Scholar
  20. 20.
    Vassilakis A, Kotsampopoulos P, Hatziargyriou N, Karapanos V (2013) A battery energy storage based virtual synchronous generator. In: IREP symposium bulk power system dynamics and control—IX optimization, security and control of the emerging power grid, Aug 2013, pp 1–6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ganesh N. Jadhav
    • 1
  • Sadik J. Shaikh
    • 1
  • Omkar N. Buwa
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringK. K. Wagh. I. E. E. & RNashikIndia
  2. 2.Department of Marketing and ProposalL & T PowerVadodaraIndia

Personalised recommendations