Advertisement

Context and Comparison of Translation Programmes in China and the UK: Market Forces, Global Positions and Curriculum Content

Chapter
  • 358 Downloads

Abstract

At the crux of this book is this chapter, which recaps the contextual issues proposed in Chapter  1 and uses the findings from Chapters  3 and  4 to make in-depth comparisons. More specifically, Chapter 5 provides a thorough discussion of the impacts of neo-liberalism on HE systems in the UK (i.e. the internationalisation of the HE sector; excellence in research; the importance of employability) and China (e.g. the expansion of the Chinese HE sector; commercialisation, privatisation and diversification of the HE sector; HE as part of China’s wider development strategy), and also contrasts the analysis by placing both contexts within a ‘global system’. This chapter explores the direct result of the market forces: the tension between education (abstract knowledge) and training (concrete skills) in universities, and how this tension is interrelated with Translation Studies. In terms of the aspects of course aims, module content, ethos of teaching, and education resources, the final section of this chapter compares how differently the six translation programmes in the UK and China have reflected the ‘tension’ and responded to market forces.

Bibliography

  1. Armstrong, C. (2008). What is a University in the UK? Available at: http://www.jobs.ac.uk/careers-advice/working-in-higher-education/1135/what-is-a-university-in-the-uk (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  2. Arts and Humanities Research Council. (2007). AHRC Vision and Strategy 2007–2012. Available at: http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/News-and-Events/Publications/Documents/Forms/AllItems.aspx (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  3. Arts and Humanities Research Council. (2008). AHRC Knowledge Transfer Strategy 2008–2011. Available at: http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/News-and-Events/Publications/Documents/Forms/AllItems.aspx (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  4. Arts and Humanities Research Council. (2013). Annual Report & Accounts 2012–2013. Available at: http://www.ahrc.ac.uk/News-and-Events/News/Documents/AHRC_AR_2012-13_web.pdf (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  5. Bernardini, S. (2010). The theory behind the practice: Translator training or translator education? In K. Malmkjær (Ed.), Translation in Undergraduate Degree Programmes (pp. 17–30). Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bielsa, E., & Bassnett, S. (2011). Translation in Global News. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  7. Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011). Teaching for Quality Learning at University (4th ed.). New York: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bloomfield, S. (2013). The soft parade. Monocle, 69(7), 67–82.Google Scholar
  9. Boden, R., & Nedeva, M. (2010). Employing discourse: Universities and graduate ‘employability’. Journal of Education Policy, 25(1), 37–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cao, L. (2012). Thoughts on the curriculum design of the MTI education (in Chinese). Academic Degrees & Graduate Education, 4, 30–34.Google Scholar
  11. Cemmell, J., & Bekhradnia, B. (2008). The Bologna Process and the UK’s International Student Market, HEPI. Available at: http://www.hepi.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/36Bolognaprocessfull.pdf (Accessed: 05 June 2015).
  12. CH Case 1. (2013). Programme Prospectus. Course Flyers. Programme Specification. Google Scholar
  13. CH Case 1. (2017). Staff Expertise on the MTI Programme at CH Case 1.Google Scholar
  14. CH Case 2. (2015). MTI Programme Specification. Google Scholar
  15. CH Case 2. (2017). Staff Expertise on the MTI Programme at CH Case 2.Google Scholar
  16. CH Case 3. (2017). Staff Expertise on the MTI Programme at CH Case 3.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, H. (1996). A New Practical Textbook of Translation from Chinese into English (in Chinese). Wuhan: Hubei Education Press.Google Scholar
  18. Chen, S. (2012). Contributing knowledge and knowledge workers: The role of Chinese universities in the knowledge economy. London Review of Education, 10(1), 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, A., & Wu, B. (2011). The regional division of the higher education sector in China. In W. J. Morgan & B. Wu (Eds.), Higher Education Reform in China: Beyond the Expansion (pp. 13–29). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Chey, J. (2007). The Gentle Dragon: China’s ‘charm offensive’, through Confucius Institutes, wins allies around the globe. Yale Global Online [Online]. Available at: http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/content/gentle-dragon (Accessed: 11 June 2015).
  21. Common Sense Advisory. (2013). The 12 UK Firms Who are Doing Business in the Language Services Industry. Available at: www.commonsenseadvisory.com (Accessed: 3 December 2013).
  22. Deem, R., Hillyard, S., & Reed, M. (2007). KnowledgeHigher Education, and the New Managerialism: The Changing Management of UK Universities [Online]. Available at: http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199265909.do (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  23. Du, P. (2000). Analysis on policies for higher education expansion (in Chinese). In Z. Yuan (Ed.), Zhongguo Jiaoyu Zhengce Pinglun. Beijing: Educational Science Publishing House.Google Scholar
  24. Elton, L. (2006). The nature of effective or exemplary teaching in an environment that emphasize strong research and teaching links. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2006(107), 33–41.Google Scholar
  25. Fan, Z. (1994). An Applied Theory of Translation (in Chinese). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.Google Scholar
  26. GB Case 1. (2015). MATI Module Catalogue. Google Scholar
  27. GB Case 1. (2017). Staff Members’ Research Interests at GB Case 1. Google Scholar
  28. GB Case 2. (2013/2014; 2014/2015). MATIS Programme Handbook. Google Scholar
  29. GB Case 2. (2017). Staff Members’ Research Interests at GB Case 2. Google Scholar
  30. GB Case 3. (2013). MATS Programme Specification (Postgraduate). Google Scholar
  31. GB Case 3. (2013/2014). MATS Postgraduate Handbook. Google Scholar
  32. GB Case 3. (2017). Staff Members’ Research Interests at GB Case 3. Google Scholar
  33. Ge, L., Luo, X., & Dong, L. (2011). Nord’s model for measuring translator’s competence and China’s MTI Training Programme (in Chinese). Chinese Translators Journal, 32(4), 31–36.Google Scholar
  34. Gfk. (2013). Nation Brand Index 2013: Latest Findings. Available at: http://www.gfk.com (Accessed: 10 June 2015).
  35. Gil, J. (2008). The promotion of Chinese language learning and China’s soft power. African Social Science, 4(10), 116–122.Google Scholar
  36. Giroux, H. A. (2002). Breaking into the Movies: Film and the Culture of Politics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell Press.Google Scholar
  37. Global Times. (2012). Full Text of Hu Jintao’s Report at 18th Party Congress (7). Available at: http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/744885.shtml (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  38. Gouadec, D. (2007). Translation as a Profession. Amsterdam and Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  39. Graves, K. (2000). Designing Language Courses: A Guide for Teachers. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.Google Scholar
  40. Great Britain. Foreign Affairs. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/topics/foreign-affairs (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  41. Great Britain. Department of Education and Science. (1987). Higher Education: Meeting the Challenge, Cmnd, 114. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  42. Great Britain. (1988). Education Reform Act 1988: Elizabeth II. Chapter 40. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  43. Great Britain. (1997). The Dearing Report. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  44. Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons. (2007). The Future Sustainability of the Higher Education Sector: International Aspects. London: The Stationery Office Limited.Google Scholar
  45. Great Britain. Department of Education. (2013). International Education: Global Growth and Prosperity [Online]. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/340600/bis-13-1081-international-education-global-growth-and-prosperity-revised.pdf (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  46. Greenaway, D., & Rudd, C. (Eds.). (2014). The Business Growth Benefits of Higher Education. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Gresty, K. A., Pan, W., Heffernan, T., & Edwards-Jones, A. (2013). Research-informed teaching from a risk perspective. Teaching in Higher Education, 18(5), 570–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hager, P., & Hyland, T. (2003). Vocational education and training. In N. Blake, P. Smeyers, R. Smith, & P. Standish (Eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Education (pp. 271–287). Malden, MA: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  49. Harland, T. (2009). The university, neoliberal reform and the liberal educational ideal. In M. Tight, K. H. Mok, J. Huisman, & C. C. Morphew (Eds.), The Routledge International Handbook of Higher Education (pp. 511–521). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Healey, M. (2005). Linking research and teaching to benefit student learning. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 29(2), 183–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Healey, M., & Jenkinson, A. (2006). Strengthening the teaching-research linkage in undergraduate courses and programmes. New Directions for Teaching and Learning,  2006(107), 43–53.Google Scholar
  52. HESA. (2015). Students in Higher Education 2015/2016. Available at: https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/publications/students-2015-16 (Accessed: 30 July 2017).
  53. Hills, J. M., Robertson, G., Walker, R., Adey, M. A., & Nixon, I. (2003). Bridging the gap between degree programme curricula and employability through implementation of work-related learning. Teaching in Higher Education, 8(2), 211–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Huang, L. (2005). Elitism and Equality in Chinese Higher Education: Studies of Student Socio-economic Background, Investment in Education, and Career Aspirations. Stockholm: Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  55. Huang, Y. (2011). The Out-going Translation in China: Challenges and Solutions (in Chinese). Available at: http://www.tac-online.org.cn/ch/tran/2011-09/30/content_4519365.htm (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  56. Huang, Y. (2017). The belt and road initiative and translation: The changing directions (in Chinese). Shanghai Journal of Translation, 3, 1–3.Google Scholar
  57. Johan, H. (1998). From translation markets to language management: The implications of translation services. Target, 10(1), 113–132.Google Scholar
  58. Kearns, J. (2008). The academic and the vocational in translator education. In J. Kearns (Ed.), Translator and Interpreter Training: Issues, Methods and Debates (pp. 184–214). London and New York: Continuum International Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  59. Kelly, D. (2005). A Handbook for Translator Trainers. Manchester, UK and Northampton, MA: St. Jerome Publishing.Google Scholar
  60. Kiraly, D. (1995). Pathways to Translation: Pedagogy and Process. Kent and London: The Kent State University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Kiraly, D. (2000). A Social Constructivist Approach to Translator Education: Empowerment from Theory to Practice. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.Google Scholar
  62. Krause, K. (2009). Student Engagement and Teaching-research Links: Opportunities and Challenges [Online]. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/6078349/Student_engagement_and_teaching-research_links_Opportunities_and_challenges (Accessed: 03 February 2018).
  63. Li, D. (2012). Curriculum Design, Needs Assessment and Translation Pedagogy. Berlin: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing GmbH & Co. KG.Google Scholar
  64. Li, D. (2013). Teaching business translation: A task-based approach. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 7(1), 1–26.Google Scholar
  65. Li, Y. A., Whalley, J., Zhang, S., & Zhao, X. (2012). The higher educational transformation of China and its global implications. In C. T. Ennew & D. Greenaway (Eds.), The Globalization of Higher Education (pp. 135–162). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lin, J., Zhang, Y., Gao, L., & Liu, Y. (2005). Trust, ownership, and autonomy: Challenges facing private higher education in China. The China Review, 5(1), 61–82.Google Scholar
  67. Lips, H. (1999). Issues of power and risk at the heart of the teaching/research nexus. Pedagogy of Women Quarterly, 23(1), 215–217.Google Scholar
  68. Luo, L., & Mu, L. (2010). Disciplinary identity of translation studies in China and its development (in Chinese). Shanghai Journal of Translators, 4, 11–15.Google Scholar
  69. Ma, W. (2013). Research-intensive Universities in the Context of Globalisation: America, England, Japan, and Germany (in Chinese). Beijing: Educational Science Publishing House.Google Scholar
  70. Mackenzie, R. (1998). The place of language teaching in a quality-oriented translators’ training programme. In K. Malmkjær (Ed.), Translation and Language Teaching: Language Teaching and Translation (pp. 15–20). Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.Google Scholar
  71. Malmkjær, K. (Ed.). (2010). Translation in Undergraduate Degree Programmes. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  72. Manteaw, B. O. (2008). When businesses go to school: Neoliberalism and education for sustainable development. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2(2), 119–216.Google Scholar
  73. Martin, P. W. (2003). Key concepts of teaching and learning in arts, humanities and social sciences. In H. Fry, S. Ketteridge, & S. Marshall (Eds.), A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Enhancing Academic Practice. London: Kogan Page.Google Scholar
  74. McCarty, M. (1999). Humanities Computing as Interdiscipline. Available at: http://www.mccarty.org.uk/essays/McCarty,%20Humanities%20computing.pdf (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  75. McClory, J. (2013). The New Persuaders III: A 2012 Global Ranking of Soft Power. Available at: http://www.instituteforgovernment.org.uk/sites/default/files/publications/The%20new%20persuaders%20III_0.pdf (Accessed: 10 June 2015).
  76. Middlesex University London. (2014a). Interpreting and Translation. Available at: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/courses/Film-media-and-English/interpreting-and-translation (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  77. Middlesex University London. (2014b). MA Business and Legal Translation. Available at: http://www.mdx.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/business-and-legal-translation (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  78. Mok, K. H. (2005). Riding over socialism and global capitalism: Changing education governance and social policy paradigms in post-Mao China. Comparative Education, 41(2), 217–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mok, K. H., & Lo, Y. W. (2007). The impacts of neo-liberalism on China’s higher education. Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 5(1), 318–348 [Online]. Available at: http://www.jceps.com/wp-content/uploads/PDFs/05-1-12.pdf (Accessed: 15 December 2014).
  80. Munday, J. (2008/2012). Introducing Translation Studies: Theories and Applications (3rd ed.). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  81. Mu, L., & Wang, W. (2011). MA and MTI in translation education: Divergent goals, differentiated curricula (in Chinese). Chinese Translators Journal, 32(2), 29–32.Google Scholar
  82. Mu, L., & Zou, B. (2011). The current approach to the writing of MTI theses and the ways for its improvement: A quantitative study based on data from 15 universities and colleges. Chinese Translators Journal, 32(5), 40–45.Google Scholar
  83. National Bureau of Statistics in China. (2006/2010). China Statistical Yearbook. China: NBSC.Google Scholar
  84. Niska, H. (2010). Training interpreters: Programmes, curricula, practices. In M. Tennent (Ed.), Training for the New Millennium (pp. 35–64). Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  85. Nye, J. S., Jr. (2005). Soft Power and Higher Education. Available at: https://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ffpiu043.pdf (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  86. Nye, J. S., Jr. (2012). China and soft power. South African Journal of International Affairs, 19(2), 151–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pan, W., Murray, P., & Cotton, D. (2011). Drivers, barriers and strategies for implementing research-informed teaching: A case study of the environmental building discipline. The Proceedings of the International Conference of Engineering Education (ICEE), Belfast, UK, 21–26 August.Google Scholar
  88. Peng, R. (2009). Translation profession and translation management, core course of MTI education of Peking University (in Chinese). The 1st Conference on MTI Education and the Translation Profession (pp. 101–106), Peking University, Beijing, 14 November. Beijing: China National Committee for MTI Education.Google Scholar
  89. Ping, H. (2013). The annual Conference of the MTI education 2013: An overview (in Chinese). Chinese Translators Journal, 34(4), 50–52.Google Scholar
  90. Pretorius, S. G., & Xue, Y. Q. (2003). The transition from elite to mass higher education: A Chinese perspective. Prospects, XXXIII(1), 89–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Qian, D., & Yang, Y. (2013). The MTI education in the universities in Beijing: Experience, reflections and suggestions (in Chinese). Chinese Translators Journal, 34(2), 72–74.Google Scholar
  92. QS. (2012). University Branch Campuses. Available at: http://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/choosing-university/university-branch-campuses (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  93. Ratcliffe, R. (2014). REF 2014: Why is it such a big deal? The Guardian, 17 December [Online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/higher-education-network/2014/dec/17/ref-2014-why-is-it-such-a-big-deal (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  94. Research Excellence Framework. (2014). Research Excellence Framework 2014: The Results [Online]. Available at: http://www.ref.ac.uk/media/ref/content/pub/REF%2001%202014%20-%20full%20document.pdf (Accessed: 5 June).
  95. Robertson, S. L. (2010). Globalising UK Higher Education. LLAKES [Online]. Available at: http://www.llakes.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/Online-Robertson.pdf (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  96. Russell Group Strategic Report. (2010). The Economic Impact of Research Conducted in Russell Group Universities [Online]. Available at: http://www.russellgroup.ac.uk/uploads/RG_ImpactOfResearch2.pdf (Accessed: 1 January 2014).
  97. Russell Group Teaching Strategy. (2010). Research-led Teaching: The Heart of a Russell Group University Experience. Available at: http://www.russellgroup.ac.uk/uploads/Learning-in-a-research-intensive-environment.pdf (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  98. Schäffner, C. (2012). Standardisation and benchmarking for improving translator training. Chinese Translators Journal, 33(6), 37–45.Google Scholar
  99. Schäffner, C., & Adab, B. (2000). Developing Translation Competence. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Schofield, A. (2011). Getting to Grips with Research & Knowledge Transfer. London: Leadership Foundation for Higher Education.Google Scholar
  101. Scott, P. (2012). It’s 20 years since polytechnics became universities—and there’s no going back. The Guardian, 03 September [Online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/education/2012/sep/03/polytechnics-became-universities-1992-differentiation (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  102. Snell-Hornby, M. (2001). Translation Studies: An Integrated Approach. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  103. Starr, D. (2009). Chinese language education in Europe: The Confucius Institutes. European Journal of Education, 44(1), 65–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. So, W. Y. (2006). Privatisation. In C. Tubilewicz (Ed.), Critical Issues in Contemporary China. London/Hong Kong: Routledge/Open University of Hong Kong Press.Google Scholar
  105. Tan, Z. (2008). Towards a whole-person translator education approach in translation teaching on university degree programmes. Meta: Translators’ Journal, 53(3), 589–608.Google Scholar
  106. The National Committee for MTI Education. (2007/2011). Plan of Setting up Specialities for the Master Degree of Translation and Interpreting (The Official Guiding Plan). Available at: http://cnmti.gdufs.edu.cn/info/1006/1094.htm (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  107. Trancn. (2015). University Partners. Available at: http://www.transn.com/bencandy.php?fid=46&id=12 (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  108. Ulrych, M. (2010). Training translators: Programmes, curricula, practices. In M. Tennent (Ed.), Training for the New Millennium (pp. 3–34). Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.Google Scholar
  109. Universities UK. (2010). The Growth of Private and Profit Higher Education Providers in the UK. London: Universities UK.Google Scholar
  110. Universities UK. (2013). Higher Education in Facts and Figures-Summer 2013. Available at: http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/highereducation/Pages/HigherEducationInFactsAndFigures2013.aspx#.VBSdPvnIbR9 (Accessed: 29 August 2014).
  111. Universities UK. (2014). The Impact of Universities on the UK Economy. Available at: http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/highereducation/Pages/ImpactOfUniversities.aspx#.VBSd5fnIbR8 (Accessed: 29 August 2014).
  112. Universities UK. (2017). Patterns and Trends in UK Higher Education 2017. Available at: http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/facts-and-stats/data-and-analysis/Pages/patterns-and-trends-2017.aspx (Accessed: 30 June 2017).
  113. University of Westminster. (2014). Translation and Interpreting MA. Available at: http://www.westminster.ac.uk/courses/subjects/languages/postgraduate-courses/full-time/p09fptai-ma-translation-and-interpreting (Accessed: 30 August 2014).
  114. Wan, Y. (2006). Expansion of Chinese higher education since 1998: Its causes and outcomes. Asia Pacific Education Review, 7(1), 19–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wang, Y. J. (1999). Crisis and reform trend in modern higher education (in Chinese). Xinhua Wenzhai (Beijing), 7, 157–160.Google Scholar
  116. Wang, J. (2010). Thoughts on the market-oriented setting of featured subjects in MTI programmes. Academic Degrees & Graduate Education, 7, 69–72.Google Scholar
  117. Wang, L. (2012). A more inclusive model of translator and interpreter training. In H. Lee-Jahnke, M. Forstner, & L. Wang (Eds.), A Global Vision: Development of Translation and Interpreting Training (pp. 55–65). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.Google Scholar
  118. Wang, L. (2013). Going global: The changing strategy of internationalisation of education in China. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 35(3), 305–315.Google Scholar
  119. Wang, X. (2016). Marketization of higher education: Literature review and research prospects (in Chinese). Fudan Education Forum, 14(2), 58–64.Google Scholar
  120. Wang, B., & Mu, L. (2009). Interpreter training and research in mainland China: Recent developments. Interpreting, 11(2), 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wang, H., Sun, Y., & Miao, L. (Eds.). (2014). Report on Globalisation of Chinese Enterprises (in Chinese). China: Social Science Academic Press.Google Scholar
  122. Wei, Y. T., & Zhang, G. C. (1995). A historical perspective on non-governmental higher education in China. The International Conference on Private Education in Asia and the Pacific Region, Xiamen, China.Google Scholar
  123. Willmott, H. (2010). Commercialising higher education in the UK: The state, industry and peer review. Studies in Higher Education, 28(2), 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wong, L., & Flynn, N. (Eds.). (2001). The Market in Chinese Social Policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  125. Wu, B., & Zheng, Y. (2008). Expansion of Higher Education in China: Challenges and Implications (Working Paper). China Policy Institute, The University of Nottingham [Online]. Available at: https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/cpi/documents/briefings/briefing-36-china-higher-education-expansion.pdf (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  126. Xinhua Net. (2014). Xi: China to Promote Cultural Soft Power. Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2014-01/01/c_125941955.htm (Accessed: 5 June 2015).
  127. Xiong, B. (2011). A comparative study of translation teaching in China and the US (in Chinese). Foreign Language World, 142, 87–96.Google Scholar
  128. Xu, J. (2012). Translation studies in China: Its functions and a possible direction for its further development (in Chinese). Chinese Translators Journal, 33(4), 5–6.Google Scholar
  129. Yang, D. (2006). Higher Education Opportunities: Gaps Persist Despite Improvement (in Chinese). Beijing: Higher Education Research Institute/Beijing University of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  130. Yang, R. (2009). Enter the dragon? China’s higher education returns to the world community: The case of Peking University personnel reforms. In J. C. Smart (Ed.), Higher Education: Handbook of Theory of Research (pp. 427–461). Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yang, R. (2010). Soft power and higher education: An examination of China’s Confucius Institutes. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 8(2), 235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yao, S., & He, M. (2014). International business engagement via executive training: A case study of the Chevening young leaders’ programme for China. In D. Greenaway & C. Rudd (Eds.), The Business Growth Benefits of Higher Education. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  133. Yao, S., Wu, B., Su, F., & Wang, J. (2010). The impact of higher education expansion on social justice in China: A spatial and inter-temporal analysis. Journal of Contemporary China, 19(67), 837–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhang, X. (2009). From foreign “propaganda” to “international communication”: China’s promotion of soft power in the age of information and communication technologies. In X. Zhang & Y. Zheng (Eds.), China’s Information and Communications Technology Revolution: Social Changes and State Responses. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  135. Zhang, W. (2010). China’s cultural future: From soft power to comprehensive national power. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 16(4), 383–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Zhao, J., & Mu, L. (2013). Innovations and practices in MTI instruction: A case study of SITS at GDUFS (in Chinese). Foreign Studies, 1(2), 78–85.Google Scholar
  137. Zhou, M. (2012). The development of the MTI programme: A case study of Beijing Foreign Studies University (in Chinese). In H. Lee-Jahnke, M. Forstner, & L. Wang (Eds.), A Global Vision: Development of Translation and Interpreting Training (pp. 160–166). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Foreign StudiesCUFEBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations