Regulating the Healthcare System

  • Pierre-Yves Donzé


In 1879, following demands from a group of private doctors, Tokyo authorities decided to limit the treatment of nonpoor outpatients in municipal hospitals. To doctors, the low-cost care available at these institutions represented unfair competition. Relations between private doctors and public hospitals continued to be difficult during the two last decades of the nineteenth century until the 1906 adoption of the Medical Practitioners Act (ishi-), which consecrated private doctors as the foundation of the health system and brought Japan into what Takeshi Kawakami called the “golden age of private medicine.”

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Osaka UniversityToyonakaJapan

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