Advertisement

Epidemiological Approaches to Characterize Human Health Risks from Environmental Exposure in a Watershed

  • Kayo Ueda
  • Hirohisa Takano
Chapter

Abstract

Water quality has impact on human health. Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms and chemicals can cause various diseases, such as diarrhea, infectious diseases, and cancer. Recently, there has been increasing attention in health risk of water-related diseases because climate change is expected to alter rainfall, surface water availability, and water quality. Epidemiological studies have been used to evaluate health risks including water-related diseases at population level. Collecting accurate information on exposure and health outcomes is a key component to obtain valid effect estimates. The section describes basic elements of epidemiological methods, including study design, health outcome measures, and exposure assessment, especially focusing on health risk of water-related diseases.

Keywords

Epidemiology Exposure assessment Health outcomes Association 

References

  1. Aschebrook-Kilfoy B, Heltshe SL, Nuckols JR et al (2012) Modeled nitrate levels in well water supplies and prevalence of abnormal thyroid conditions among the Old Order Amish in Pennsylvania. Environ Health 11:6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Gallagher LG, Webster TF, Aschengrau A et al (2010) Using residential history and groundwater modeling to examine drinking water exposure and breast cancer. Environ Health Perspect 118:749–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gertler M, Durr M, Renner P et al (2015) Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis following river flooding in the city of Halle (Saale), Germany, August 2013. BMC Infect Dis 15:88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hatch M, Thomas D (1993) Measurement issues in environmental epidemiology. Environ Health Perspect 101(Suppl 4):49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. IPCS (2004) IPCS risk assessment terminology. IPCS, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  6. IARC (2013) IARC monographs of carcinogenic risks to humans. In: IARC (ed) Some chemicals present in industrial and consumer products, food and drinking-water, benzophenone, vol 101. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, pp 285–304Google Scholar
  7. Jordan SJ, Benson WH (2015) Sustainable watersheds: integrating ecosystem services and public health. Environ Health Insights 9:1–7Google Scholar
  8. Kolok AS, Beseler CL, Chen XH et al (2009) The watershed as a conceptual framework for the study of environmental and human health. Environ Health Insights 3:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Levy K, Woster AP, Goldstein RS et al (2016) Untangling the impacts of climate change on waterborne diseases: a systematic review of relationships between diarrheal diseases and temperature, rainfall, flooding, and drought. Environ Sci Technol 50:4905–4922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lobitz B, Beck L, Huq A et al (2000) Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:1438–1443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Manuel J (2014) Crisis and emergency risk communication lessons from the Elk River spill. Environ Health Perspect 122:A214–A219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Morgenstern H, Thomas D (1993) Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology. Environ Health Perspect 101(Suppl 4):23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Nieuwenhuijsen M, Paustenbach D, Duarte-Davidson R (2006) New developments in exposure assessment: the impact on the practice of health risk assessment and epidemiological studies. Environ Int 32:996–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Parkin DM, Sanghvi LD (1991) Cancer registration in developing countries. IARC Sci Publ 95:185–198Google Scholar
  15. Quansah R, Armah FA, Essumang DK et al (2015) Association of arsenic with adverse pregnancy outcomes/infant mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect 123:412–421Google Scholar
  16. Villanueva CM, Kogevinas M, Cordier S et al (2014) Assessing exposure and health consequences of chemicals in drinking water: current state of knowledge and research needs. Environ Health Perspect 122:213–221Google Scholar
  17. Wolf J, Pruss-Ustun A, Cumming O et al (2014) Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression. Tropical Med Int Health 19:928–942CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations