Epidemiological Approaches to Characterize Human Health Risks from Environmental Exposure in a Watershed

  • Kayo Ueda
  • Hirohisa Takano


Water quality has impact on human health. Contamination of drinking water by microorganisms and chemicals can cause various diseases, such as diarrhea, infectious diseases, and cancer. Recently, there has been increasing attention in health risk of water-related diseases because climate change is expected to alter rainfall, surface water availability, and water quality. Epidemiological studies have been used to evaluate health risks including water-related diseases at population level. Collecting accurate information on exposure and health outcomes is a key component to obtain valid effect estimates. The section describes basic elements of epidemiological methods, including study design, health outcome measures, and exposure assessment, especially focusing on health risk of water-related diseases.


Epidemiology Exposure assessment Health outcomes Association 


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental EngineeringKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

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