Watershed Pollutants: Risk Assessment and Management of Chemicals and Hazardous Substances

  • Mazlin Mokhtar
  • Goh Choo Ta
  • Lubna Alam
  • Mohd Talib Latif


Watersheds provide ecological services that benefit flora and fauna, and people are also benefited from the ecological services, particularly for living and development purposes. Hence, watersheds must be managed in holistic and integrated manners to ensure their sustainability. Nonetheless, rapid development has polluted watersheds, and some of the watershed pollutants are chemicals and hazardous substances. This chapter explains the concept of chemical risk and introduces a framework for chemical risk assessment and management that takes into account the importance of human and environmental health. The chapter also discusses chemicals that cause air pollution (such as ground-level ozone and asbestos) and water pollution (such as different types of heavy metals). In the conclusion, this chapter highlights that we cannot avoid dealing with chemicals in our daily life but we can reduce the risks associated with them.


Watershed pollutants Chemical risk Chemical assessment Chemical management Pollution 



The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) via the project codes UKM-DLP-2011-23 and GUP-2015-029, and partial support from ACP JSPS MOHE to Group 3, Grant Number 203/PKT/6720004 (Programme 203/PKT/6724003).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mazlin Mokhtar
    • 1
  • Goh Choo Ta
    • 2
  • Lubna Alam
    • 2
  • Mohd Talib Latif
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM, The National University of Malaysia)BangiMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Science and TechnologyUniversiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM)BangiMalaysia

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