Advertisement

TDZ Induced Diverse In Vitro Responses in Some Economically Important Plants

  • Parvatam Giridhar
  • Sridevi Vaddadi
  • Pradeep Matam
  • S. V. Shreelakshmi
Chapter

Abstract

A fleeting look at the diverse responses exhibited by a variety of plants against a urea derived, multifunctional plant growth regulator thidiazuron (N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea (TDZ)) reveals its significance in plant tissue culture. Few decades ago this substituted phenylurea compound was in use rarely for inducing tissue culture responses in woody plant species, but later became one of the most sought-after plant growth regulators for induction of in vitro responses even in non-woody plant species. One notable feature of this growth regulator is its cytokinin- and auxin-type responses reported in excised tissues of plants, which is otherwise familiar as a defoliant for the mechanical harvest of cotton bolls. Often morphogenetic responses such as organogenesis via direct or indirect way, somatic embryogenesis, callus cell culture proliferations, etc. and physiological changes at cellular level were demonstrated upon administering TDZ in vitro. Various biochemical core mechanisms for such triggered responses of TDZ have been reviewed. Under this context, a glance at TDZ induced in vitro responses in a woody plant species, such as coffee, vanilla orchid, annatto dye-yielding tropical plant Bixa orellana, banana, a natural non-calorie sweetener Stevia rebaudiana and natural flavour 2H4MB producing Decalepis hamiltonii, will evoke interest among researchers in this area, as the outcome facilitates further advances in this area and also helpful for better utilization of TDZ for biotechnological improvement of economically important plant species.

Keywords

Callus Cell proliferation Embryogenesis Plant regeneration Thidiazuron 

References

  1. Anuradha A, Smriti V, Namrata S, Priyanka V, Meena DPS, Tyagi RK (2014) Cryoconservation of some wild species of Musa L. Indian J Genet 74(4):665–669Google Scholar
  2. Arinaitwe G, Rubaihayo PR, Magambo MJS (2000) Proliferation rate effects of cytokinins on banana (Musa spp.) cultivars. Sci Hortic 86:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arndt F, Rusch R, Stllfried HV (1976) SN 49537 a new cotton defoliant. Plant Physiol 57:99Google Scholar
  4. Capelle SC, Mok DWS, Kirchner SC (1983) Effects of thidiazuron on cytokinin autonomy and the metabolism of Nt-(/x 2-isopentenyl) [8-14C] adenosine in callus tissues of Phaseolus lunatus L. Plant Physiol 73:796–802CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. De Paiva Neto VB, Ribeiro da Mota T, Otoni WC (2003) Direct organogenesis from hypocotyl-derived explants of annatto (Bixa orellana). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 75:159–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Farahani F, Aminpoor H, Sheidai M, Noormohammadi Z, Mazinani MH (2008) An improved system for in vitro propagation of banana (Musa acuminate L.) cultivars. Asian J Plant Sci 7(1):116–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ghauri EG, Afridi MDS, Marwat AG, Rahman I, Akram MD (2013) Micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni through root explants. Pak J Bot 45(4):1411–1416Google Scholar
  8. Gill R, Gerrath JM, Saxena PK (1993) Hïgh-frequency direct somatic embryogenesis in thin layer cultures of hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum). Can J Bot 71:408–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giridhar P (2007) Micropropagation of vanilla: a foremost orchid spice crop of humid tropics. J Ind Bot Soc 86:51–53Google Scholar
  10. Giridhar P, Ravishankar GA (2004) Efficient micropropagation of Vanilla planifolia Andr. under the influence of thidiazuron, zeatin and coconut water. Indian J Biotechnol 3:113–118Google Scholar
  11. Giridhar P, Kumar V, Indu EP, Ravishankar GA, Chandrasekar A (2004) Thidiazuron induced somatic embryogenesis in Coffea arabica and C. canephora P ex Fr. Acta Bot Croat 63:25–33Google Scholar
  12. Giridhar P, Gururaj B, Ravishankar GA (2005) In vitro shoot multiplication through shoot tip cultures of Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn., a threatened plant endemic to southern India. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 41:77–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Giridhar P, Sowmya KS, Ramakrishna A, Ravishankar GA (2010) Rapid clonal propagation and Stevioside profiles of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Int J Plant Dev Biol 4(1):47–52Google Scholar
  14. Gubbuk H, Pekmezci M (2006) In vitro propagation of banana (Musa spp.) using thidiazuron and activated charcoal. Acta Agric Scand Sect B-Soil Plant Sci 56:65–69Google Scholar
  15. Guo B, Abbasi BH, Zeb A, Xu LL, Wei YH (2011) Thidiazuron: a multi-dimensional plant growth regulator. Afr J Biotechnol 10(45):8984–9000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ibrahim MSD, Hartati SR, Rubiyo, Agus P, Sudarsono (2013) Direct and indirect somatic embryogenesis on Arabica coffee (Coffea Arabica). Indones J Agric Sci 14(2):79–86Google Scholar
  17. Jane K, Felicien N, Bancy W, Ntirugulirwa B, Amini M, Peter YS, Njenga PK, Theodore A (2015) In vitro propagation of two elite cooking banana cultivars- FHIA 17 and INJAGI. Int J Biotech Mol Bio Res 6:40–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jing GF, Razak WNWAB, Rahaman ZA, Subramaniam S (2014) The effect of thin cell layer system in Vanilla planifolia in vitro culture. Curr Bot 5:22–25Google Scholar
  19. Ju YS, Sivanesan I, Geon An C, Jeong BR (2010) Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of miniature paprika (Capsicum annuum) ‘Hivita Red’ and ‘Hivita Yellow’. African J Biotech 9(19):2768–2773Google Scholar
  20. Kassim S, Geofrey A, Patrick RR, Settumba BM (2015) TDZ and 4-CPPU induce embryogenic response on scalps of recalcitrant East African highland banana. J Agri Sci 7(8):1–11Google Scholar
  21. Kehie M, Kumaria S, Tandon P (2012) In vitro plantlet regeneration from nodal segments and shoot tips of Capsicum chinense Jacq. cv. Naga King chili. 3 Biotechnol 2:31–35Google Scholar
  22. Kodja H, Michel N, Shahnoo SK, Hafsah L, Robert V, Palama TL (2015) Biochemical characterization of embryogenic calli of Vanilla planifolia in response to two years of thidiazuron treatment. Plant Physio Biochem:1–36Google Scholar
  23. Lata H, Chandra S, Wang YH, Raman V, Khan IA (2013) TDZ-induced high frequency plant regeneration through direct shoot organogenesis in Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni: an important medicinal plant and a natural sweetener. Am J Plant Sci 4:117–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lata H, Chandra S, Wang YH, Elsohly MA, Khan IA (2014) In vitro germplasm conservation of elite Stevia rebaudiana bertoni. Acta Hort (ISHS) 1039:303–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee SW (2005) Thidiazuron in the improvement of banana micropropagation. Acta Hortic 692:67–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Makara AM, Rubaihayo PR, Magambo MJS (2010) Carry-over effect of Thidiazuron on banana in vitro proliferation at different culture cycles and light incubation conditions. African J Biotech 9:3079–3085Google Scholar
  27. Minoo D (2002) Seedling and somaclonal variation and their characterization in Vanilla. PhD thesis, Calicut University, KeralaGoogle Scholar
  28. Minoo D, Nirmal Babu K (2009) Micropropagation and in vitro conservation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews). In: Jain SM, Saxena PK (eds) Springer protocols, methods in molecular biology 547, protocols for in vitro cultures and secondary metabolite analysis of aromatic and medicinal plants. The Humana Press/Springer, New York, pp 129–138Google Scholar
  29. Mok MC, Mok DWS, Armstrong DJ, Shudo K, ISO Y, Okamoto T (1982) Cytokinin activity of N-phenyl-N-1, 2,3 -thidiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron). Phytochemistry 21:1509–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Murch SJ, Saxena PK (1997) Modulation of mineral and fatty acid profiles during thidiazuron mediated somatic embryogenesis in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) J Plant Physiol 151:358–361Google Scholar
  31. Mythili JB, Rajeev PR, Vinay G, Nayeem A (2017) Synergistic effect of silver nitrate and coconut water on shoot differentiation and plant regeneration from cultured cotyledons of Capsicum annum L. Indian J Exp Bio 55:184–190Google Scholar
  32. Nancy SB, Adriana CF, Felipe BP, Montalvo-Peniche MC, Zapata-Castillo PY, Anabel SR, Amilcar ZC, Omar GA, Miranda- Ham ML (2005) Regeneration of Habanero Pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) via organogenesis. Hort Sci 40(6):1829–1831Google Scholar
  33. Nirmal Babu K, Ravindran PN, Peter KV (1997) Protocols for micropropagation of spices and aromatic crops. Indian Inst Spices Res Calicut 35Google Scholar
  34. Otroshy M, Moradi K, Khayam Nekouei M (2011) The effect of different cytokines in propagation of Capsicum annuum L. by in vitro nodal cutting. Trakia J Sci 9:21–30Google Scholar
  35. Palama TL, Menard P, Isabelle F, Choi YH, Bourdon E, Joyce GS, Muriel B, Bertrand P, Robert V, Kodja H (2010) Shoot differentiation from protocorm callus cultures of Vanilla planifolia (Orchidaceae): proteomic and metabolic responses at early stage. BMC Plant Biol 10:82Google Scholar
  36. Parimalan R, Giridhar P, Ravishankar GA (2008) Mass multiplication of Bixa orellana L. through tissue culture for commercial propagation. Ind Crop Prod 28:122–127Google Scholar
  37. Rafael RM, Neftali OA (1996) An improved and reliable chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plant regeneration method. Plant Cell Rep 16:226–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sadik K, Rubaihayo PR, Magambo MJS, Pillay M (2007) Generation of cell suspensions of East African highland bananas through scalps. Afr J Biotechnol 6:1352–1357Google Scholar
  39. Saini RK, Giridhar P (2012) Effect of temperature, chemical treatment, hydration and plant growth regulators on germination of seeds and immature zygotic embryo of swallow root (Decalepis hamiltonii). Research J Agri Sci 3:40–44Google Scholar
  40. Saxena PK, Malik KA, Gill LG (1992) Induction by Thidiazuron of somatic embryogenesis in intact seedlings of peanut. Planta 187:421–424CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sheidai M, Aminpoor H, Noormohammadi Z, Farahani F (2010) RAPD analysis of somaclonal variation in banana (Musa accuminata L.) cultivar Cavendish Dwarf. Geneconserve 9:1–10Google Scholar
  42. Shirani S, Mahdavi F, Maziah M (2009) Morphological abnormality among regenerated shoots of banana and plantain (Musa spp.) after in vitro multiplication with TDZ and BA from excised shoot-tips. Afr J Biotechnol 8(21):5755–5761Google Scholar
  43. Shirani S, Sariah M, Zakaria W, Maziah M (2010) Study of genetic and phenotypic variability among somaclones induced by BA and TDZ in micropropagated shoot tips of banana (Musa spp.) using RAPD markers. J Agri Sci 2(3):49–60Google Scholar
  44. Singh P, Dwivedi P (2014) Two-stage culture procedure using thidiazuron for efficient micropropagation of Stevia rebaudiana, an anti-diabetic medicinal herb. 3 Biotech 4(4):431–437CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Smitha PD, Binoy KR, Ashalatha SN (2014) Effect of TDZ on direct shoot regeneration from whole male inflorescence of four diploid banana cultivars from South India. Plant Sci Int 1(1):24–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smitha PD, Binoy KR, Ashalatha SN (2015) Plantlet production through development of cormlet from bract meristem of four diploid banana cultivars from south India. Int J Curr Sci and Tech 3(6):32–36Google Scholar
  47. Sridevi V, Giridhar P (2008) Recent trends in coffee biotechnology towards quality improvement – a review. Ind J Bot Res 4:5–12Google Scholar
  48. Sridevi V, Giridhar P (2014) Establishment of somaclonal variants of Robusta coffee with reduced levels of cafestol and kahweol. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 50:618–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suttle JC (1985) Involvement of ethylene in the action of the cotton defoliant thidiazuron. Plant Physiol 78:272–276CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Theodosy JM, Juliana M (2014) Effect of thidiazuron on in vivo shoot proliferation of popular banana (Musa spp. L) cultivars in Tanzania. J App Biosci 81:7214–7220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Thomas JC, Katterman FR (1986) Cytokinin activity induced by thidiazuron. Plant Physiol 81:681–683CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Vedavathy S (2004) Decalepis hamiltonii Wight & Arn.-an endangered source of indigenous health drink. Nat Product Rad 3:22–23Google Scholar
  53. Venkataiah P, Christopher T, Subhash K (2003) Thidiazuron induced high frequency adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration in Capsicum annuum L. J Plant Biotechnol 5:245–250Google Scholar
  54. Vijaya Sekhar VE, Krishna Satya A, Sudhakar P, Sambasivarao KRS (2012) Improved in vitro shoot multiplication of Bixa orellana under the influence of phytohormones particularly thidiazuron. J Pharm Res 5(2):1144–1147Google Scholar
  55. Wijerathna YMAM, Kumarihami HMPC (2016) Effects of different hormonal concentrations and culture medium on multiplication and rooting of stage II banana (Musa cavendishii). Not Sci Biol 8(1):69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Zayova E, Stancheva I, Geneva M, Petrova M, Dimitrova L (2013) Antioxidant activity of in vitro propagated Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni plants of different origins. Turkish J of Bio 37:106–113Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parvatam Giridhar
    • 1
  • Sridevi Vaddadi
    • 1
  • Pradeep Matam
    • 1
  • S. V. Shreelakshmi
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Cell Biotechnology DepartmentCSIR-Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations