Advertisement

Thidiazuron (TDZ): A Callus Minimizer for In Vitro Plant Production

  • Buhara Yücesan
Chapter

Abstract

Thidiazuron (TDZ) seems to be quite suitable growth regulator for rapid and effective plant production in vitro. In many woody and herbaceous plants, lower TDZ concentrations induce less callus production around the explant. However, there is still insufficient number of studies how actually TDZ is effective on plant production in vitro and which biochemical and molecular genetic mechanism are involved in developmental physiology. Recent studies have shown that TDZ affects endogenous cytokinin and auxin production, and therefore morphogenetic identification of cells and tissues is downregulated by various genes acting on auxin regulation and transport as well as cytokinin response. These hormones that take a role in several metabolic pathways wherein more researches are required to identify the direct regulator and stress signaling factors during plant regeneration are induced by TDZ. A closer look on these subjects may bring about a better understanding on why urea derivative TDZ is more effective than adenine types of cytokinin on most species and how low concentration of TDZ has been found to be useful for micropropagation, especially in wood plants. Lastly, why does long exposure of TDZ have not been recommended and what are the possible reasons of hyperhydricity, abnormal shoot growth, and difficulty in rooting? The answers will be quite useful for management of culture conditions for the large-scale production and conservation of economical plants.

Keywords

TDZ Thidiazuron Callus Growth Regulators Morphogeny 

References

  1. Agarwal B, Singh U, Maitreyi B (1992) In vitro clonal propagation of tea (Camellia sinensis). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 30:1–5Google Scholar
  2. Barash I, Manulis-Sasson S (2007) Virulence mechanisms and host specificity of gall-forming Pantoea agglomerans. Trends Microbiol 15:538–545Google Scholar
  3. Casanova E, Valdés AE, Fernández B et al (2004) Levels and immunolocalization of endogenous cytokinins in thidiazuron induced shoot organogenesis in carnation. J Plant Physiol 61:95–104. https://doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-00957 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cline MN, Neely D (1983) The histology and histochemistry of wound-healing process in geranium cuttings. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 108:496–502Google Scholar
  5. Duclercq J, Sangwan-Norreel B, Catterou M, Sangwan RS (2011) De novo shoot organogenesis: from art to science. Trends Plant Sci 16:597–606CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Gill R, Ozias-Akins P (1999) Thidiazuron-induced highly morphogenic callus and high frequency regeneration of fertile peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol–Plant 35:455–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guo B, Abbasi BH, Zeb A, Xu LL, Wei YH (2011) Thidiazuron: a multi-dimensional plant growth regulator. Afr J Biotechnol 10(45):8984–9000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Huetteman CA, Preece JE (1993) Thidiazuron: a potent cytokinin for woody plant tissue culture. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 33:105–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ikeuchi M, Sugimoto K, Iwase A (2013) Plant callus: mechanisms of induction and repression. Plant Cell 25(9):3159–3173CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Kou Y, Yuan C, Zhao Q et al (2016) Thidiazuron triggers morphogenesis in Rosa caninaL. Protocorm-like bodies by changing incipient cell fate. Front Plant Sci 7:557. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.00557
  11. Kreis W, Haug B, Yücesan B (2015) Somaclonal variation of cardenolide content in Heywood’s foxglove, a source for the antiviral cardenolide glucoevatromonoside, regenerated from permanent shoot culture and callus. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 51:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Linsmaier E, Skoog F (1965) Organic growth factor requirements of tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 18:100–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lu C (1993) The use of Thidiazuron in tissue culture. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol 29P(2):92–96. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4292979
  14. Mok MC, Mok DWS (1985) The metabolism of [14C]-thidiazuron in callus tissues of Phaseolus lunatus. Physiol Plant 65:427–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mok MC, Mok DWS, Armstrong DJ et al (1982) Cytokinin activity of N-phenyl-N′-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-yl urea (thidiazuron). Phytochemistry 21:1509–1511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mutun S, Dinç S (2011) Contributions to the gallwasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) fauna of Turkey with one new record. J Appl Biol Sci 5:83–85Google Scholar
  17. Nester EW, Gordon MP, Amasino RM, Yanofsky MF (1984) Crown gall: a molecular and physiological analysis. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 35:387–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stobbe H, Schmitt U, Eckstein D, Dujesiefken D (2002) Developmental stages and fine structure of surface callus formed after debarking of living lime trees (Tilia sp.) Ann Bot (Lond) 89:773–782Google Scholar
  19. Visser C, Qureshi JA, Gill R et al (1992) Morphoregulatory role of thidiazuron. Plant Physiol 99:1704–1707. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.99.4.1704 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Yücesan B, Türker AU, Gürel E (2007) TDZ-induced high-frequency plant regeneration through multiple shoot formation in witloof chicory (Cichorium intybus L). Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 91:243–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Yücesan B, Mohammed A, Arslan M, Gürel E (2015) Clonal propagation and synthetic seed production from nodal segments of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), a tropical fruit plant. Turk J Agric For 39:797–806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Zhang HM, Yang J, Xin X, Chen JP, Adams M (2007) Molecular characterization of the genome segments S4, S6 and S7 of rice gall dwarf virus. Arch Virol 152:1593–1602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Seed Science and Technology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesAbant İzzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey

Personalised recommendations