Gas–Liquid Flows in Ladle Shroud and Their Impact on Tundish Process Performance and Steel Quality

  • Prince K. Singh
  • Subham Ranjan
  • Dipak MazumdarEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


A physical and mathematical modelling investigation has been carried out to study gas–liquid, two-phase, flow phenomena in a ladle shroud and underscore their associated impact on tundish process performance. To this end, Perspex model of a full-scale ladle shroud, operating with a bloom caster, has been fabricated and flow dynamics was studied as a function of argon injection rate, throughput and discharge environment (i.e. open vs. submerged). It is observed that liquid flow regimes in a shroud are critical to the choice of argon injection rate and this has significant bearing on the extent of slag–metal–air (ambient) mixing in tundish. In such context, the role of a tundish physical cover and continuous argon flushing of tundish has also been investigated computationally. Based on this, a novel design is proposed so that both air ingression and slag–metal interactions in tundish can be contained helping produce clean steel.


Physical and mathematical modelling Ladle shroud Reoxidation Tundish flushing Continuous casting 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prince K. Singh
    • 1
  • Subham Ranjan
    • 1
  • Dipak Mazumdar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringIndian Institute of TechnologyKanpurIndia

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