Advertisement

Nonformal and Informal Education in Thailand

  • Sumalee SungsriEmail author
Chapter
  • 441 Downloads
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 42)

Abstract

In Thailand, before any kind of education was formally introduced, education or learning existed mainly in the form of informal learning. In addition, some forms of informally organized nonformal education also existed. In 1940, the Division of Adult Education was established within the Ministry of Education to look after nonformal education which was called at that time adult education. The main purpose of the latter in that period was to provide adults with literacy skills coupled with knowledge and understanding about citizen roles in a democratic society. Later on the division was upgraded to become the Department of Non-Formal Education, and the scope of responsibilities was extended to serve all after compulsory school-age people, including adults. When the National Education Act, 1999, which focused on lifelong education, was promulgated, all types of education were recognized as main components of lifelong education: formal education, nonformal education, and informal education. This chapter provides readers with the details of both nonformal and informal education in Thailand. It begins with the definition and concept of nonformal and informal education and non-formal and informal education as components of lifelong education. Then discussed is the evolution and development of nonformal and informal education, including policy implementation and the identification of best practices of nonformal and informal education. The data sources derive from both the documentary search and field studies. The author has synthesized all related information and data together with her own experience working in the field of nonformal and informal education for over 30 years to compose this chapter in order to provide readers with diverse perspectives on nonformal and informal education in Thailand.

References

  1. Alternative Education Revolution Organization. 2017. Alternative Education Hall of Fame, Kovit Vorapipatana. http://www.educationrevolution.org/store/resources/halloffame/#varapipatana.
  2. Apps, Jerold W. 1992. Adult education: The way to lifelong learning. Bloomington: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation (fast back no. 334).Google Scholar
  3. Atchara Sakrajai. 2014. Naeo thang chat kansueksa nok rabob puea songsuem kansueksa dalot chiwit nai ekasan kanson chut wichakansueksa dalot chiwit kae kansueksa nok rabob nuai thi 13 sakawicha sueksasat Mahawitayalai Sukhothaithammathirat (STOU) [Guidelines for organizing non-formal education for promoting lifelong learning. Chapter 13 in Lifelong Education and Non-Formal Education Textbook, School of Educational Studies, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University]. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University Printing House, 13-1–13-54.Google Scholar
  4. Axford, Roger W. 1980. Adult education: The open door to lifelong learning. Indiana: A.G. Halldin.Google Scholar
  5. Axin, George H. 1985. Toward a strategy of international interaction in non-formal education. East Lansing: Institute for International Studies in Education, College of Education, Michigan State University.Google Scholar
  6. Bock, John C., and George J. Papagiannis, eds. 1983. Nonformal education and national development: A critical assessment of policy, research, and practice. New York: Praeger Publisher Inc.Google Scholar
  7. Coady, Maureen. 2016. Contexts, practices and challenges: New directions for adult and continuing education, number 151. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Coombs, Philip H. 1973. Non-formal education for rural development: Strengthening learning opportunities for children and youth. New York: ICED. Interim report prepared by the International Council for Educational Development.Google Scholar
  9. Coombs, Philip H., Roy Prosser, and Ahmed Manzoor. 1973. New paths to learning for rural children and youth. New York: International Council for Educational Development.Google Scholar
  10. Department of Non-formal Education. 1988. Raingan prachambi 2530 [Annual report year 1987]. Bangkok: Karnsasana Printing House.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 1995. Kansueksa talot chiwit [Lifelong education]. Bangkok: Kurusapa Lardprow Printing House.Google Scholar
  12. Editorial. 1994. Khon diden khong duan: Malichien Pengvong [Outstanding person of the month]. Journal of Village and District Heads:22–23.Google Scholar
  13. Fordham, Paul, ed. 1980. Participation, learning and change: Commonwealth approaches to non-formal education. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 1993. Informal, non-formal and formal education programmes in YMCA George Williams college ICE301 lifelong learning, unit 1 approaching lifelong learning. London: YMCA George Williams College.Google Scholar
  15. Gros, Begoña, Kinshuk, and Marcelo Maina, eds. 2015. The future of ubiquitous learning designs for emerging pedagogies. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  16. Hewison, Kevin. 1999. Thailand’s capitalism: The impact of the economic crisis. UNEAC Asia papers, no. 1. University of new England Asia Centre, Australia. http://econ.tu.ac.th/class/archan/RANGSUN/EC%20460/EC%20460%20Readings/Thai%20Economy/Thai%20Capitalism/Thailand's%20Capitalism-%20Impact%20of%20Econ%20Crisis.pdf.
  17. Jansen, Karel. 1997. External finance in Thailand’s development. An interpretation of Thailand’s Growth Boom. Houndsmill: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jarvis, Peter. 1987. Adult learning in the social context. London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  19. Juree Vichit-Vadakan. 2008. A glimpse of women leaders in Thai local politics. In Women and politics in Thailand: Continuity and change, ed. Kazuki Iwanaga, 135–138. Copenhagen: NIAS Press.Google Scholar
  20. Kasama Varavan. 1989. Literacy campaigns and programmes in the context of literacy promotion: Lessons learned from Thai experiences. Adult Education and Development 33 (September): 157–166.Google Scholar
  21. Kasama Varavan Na Ayudhaya. 1989. Saphap lae panha kansueksa nok rabob nai prathet Thai nai ekasan kanson chut wichakansueksa dalot chiwit kae kansueksa nok rabob nuai thi 14 sakawicha sueksasat Mahawitayalai Sukhothaithammathirat [Situation and problems of non-formal education in Thailand, Chapter 14 in Lifelong education and non-formal education textbook. School of Educational Studies, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University]. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University Printing House.Google Scholar
  22. Kedrayate, Akanisi. 2012. Non-formal education: Is it relevant or obsolete? International Journal of Business, Humanities and Technology 2 (4): 11–15.Google Scholar
  23. Kinshuk, and Ronghuai Huang, eds. 2015. Ubiquitous learning environments and technologies. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Knowles, Malcom S. 1984. Andragogy in action: Applying modern principles of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey Bass Inc.Google Scholar
  25. Kowit Varapipatana. 1980. Kanchat kansueksa dam naeo thang kansueksa dalot chiwit nai ruam botkhwam kansueksa nok rongrian [Organizing education in accord with the guidelines of lifelong education in collection of non-formal education articles]. Vol. 3. Bangkok: Department of Non-Formal Education, 28–62.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2000. Rian than ratamontri. Kho lo ok chak pen phusongkhunawut khong khanakammakan patirup kansueksa khong krasuangsueksathikan [Mr. minister, please allow me to resign as an ex-officio member of the Ministry’s education reform committee]. Letter written from the hospital, October 15.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 2017. Archive on Dr. Kowit’s life and accomplishments at Benchamaracharungsarit 2 school. Compiled by Achan Sali Kasemrat, Rajanagarindra Rajabhat University.Google Scholar
  28. Lengrand, Paul. 1975. Introduction to lifelong education. Paris: Croom Helm, Ltd.Google Scholar
  29. Lewis, Paul W., and Lewis Elaine. 1998. Peoples of the golden triangle: Six tribes in Thailand. London: Thames and Hudson.Google Scholar
  30. Lindeman, Eduard C. 1926. The meaning of adult education. New York: New Republic.Google Scholar
  31. Masoud, Ameera. 2015. Nonformal education and youth empowerment in the knowledge-based economy: A critical discourse analysis of the Europe 2020 strategy. University of Oulu. http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:oulu-201504021288.
  32. National Commission on Women’s Affairs (NCWA). 1993. Thai women. Bangkok: Amanrindta Printing Group.Google Scholar
  33. NCWA. See National Commission on Women’s Affairs.Google Scholar
  34. November, Alan C. 2008. Web literacy for educators. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  35. OEC. See Office of the Education Council.Google Scholar
  36. Office of National Economic and Social Development Board. 2002. The ninth National Economic and social development plan (2002–2006). Bangkok: Office of National Economic and Social Development Board.Google Scholar
  37. Office of National Education Commission. 1977. Phaen kansueksa haeng chat pho sor 2520 [The National Education Plan, year 1977]. Bangkok: ONEC, Office of the Prime Minister.Google Scholar
  38. ———. 2001. The National Education act, B.E. 2542 (1999). Bangkok: Office of National Education Commission.Google Scholar
  39. Office of Non-Formal Education Administration. 2005. Roadmap ko so no [Non-formal education roadmap]. Bangkok: Office of Non-formal Education Administration.Google Scholar
  40. Office of the Education Council. 2009a. Phaen kansueksa haeng chat pho so 2552–2559. The National Education Development Plan, year 2009–2016. Bangkok: Office of National Education Commission.Google Scholar
  41. ———. 2009b. Proposals for the second decade of education reform year 2009–2018. Bangkok: Office of National Education Commission.Google Scholar
  42. Office of the National Education Commission. 2003. The National Education Act.Google Scholar
  43. Office of the Non-Formal and Informal Education. 2008. Phrarachabanyat songsuem kansueksa nok rabob lae kansueksa tam athayasai po so, 2551 [The act promoting non-formal and informal education, year 2008]. Bangkok: Office of the Non-formal and Informal Education.Google Scholar
  44. ———. 2010, 2011. Nayobai lae chutnen kandamnuen ngan samnakngan ko so no. pho. So. 2553 lae pho. So. 2554 [Policy and emphasis of the work of the ONIE, 2010 and 2011]. Bangkok: Office of the Non-Formal and Informal Education.Google Scholar
  45. ———. 2013. Nayobai kandamnuen ngan samnakngan ko so no [Policy of the work of the Office of the non-Formal and Informal Education]. Bangkok: Office of Non-formal and Informal Education.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 2015a. Phaen phatana kansueksa nok rabob lae kansueksa dam athayasai pho so 2559–2563 (draft) [Non-formal and informal education development plan year2016–2020(draft). Bangkok: Office of the Non-formal and Informal Education.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2015b. Sathanaphap kandamnuen ngan kansueksa nok rabob lae kansueksa tam athayasai nai chuang 3 pi thi phan ma (2554–2556) lae praden thi kuan phatana raeng duan nai phaen pathana kansueksa nok robob lae kansueksa tam athayasai pho.so. 2559–2563 (rang) [The situation of organizing non-formal and informal education during the past 3 years (2011–2013) and issues for urgent development in the Non-Formal and Informal Education Development Plan (2016–2020) (draft)]. Bangkok: Office of the Non-formal and Informal Education.Google Scholar
  48. Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Education. 1987. Kanchat kansueksa Thai tam phaenkansueksa haeng chat: Adid-patchuban [The management of Thai education in accord with the national education plans: Past and present]. Bangkok: Aksornthai.Google Scholar
  49. Okano, Kaori. 2016. Nonformal education and civil society in Japan. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. ONEC. See Office of the National Education Commission.Google Scholar
  51. ONIE. See Office of the Non-Formal and Informal Education.Google Scholar
  52. Oonta Nopakun. 1985. Khit-pen and human resource development, 1985. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University.Google Scholar
  53. Ostrouch, Joanna, and Cristina C. Vieira. 2015. Private world(s): Gender and informal learning of adults. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Ounta Nopakun. 1984. Kanrian kanson phuyai puea kanphatana saphayakon manut [Learning and teaching adults for human resource development]. Bangkok: Krung-Siam Printing.Google Scholar
  55. Pathom Nikamanondha. 1985. Kansueksa nok rabob rongrian [Non-formal education]. Bangkok: Thip-Aksorn Co.Ltd.Google Scholar
  56. ———. 2000. Khrongsang rabob kansueksa Thai nai ekasan kanson chut wichakansueksa dalot chiwit lae kansueksa nok rabob nuai thi 3 [The structure of the Thai education system in the textbook, lifelong education and non-formal education, School of Educational Studies, chapter 3]. Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, 117–168. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University Printing House.Google Scholar
  57. Phanni Ketkamon. 2015. Kon cha khit pen tong fuek khit kon [To be capable of thinking, first you must practice thinking]. Bangkok: DPU Press.Google Scholar
  58. Reich, Justin, and Thomas Daccord. 2015. Best ideas for teaching with technology: A practical guide for teachers, by teachers. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=957689.
  59. Rogers, Jenny. 1977. Adult learning. 2nd ed. Milton Keynes: Open University press.Google Scholar
  60. Simkins, Tim. 1977. Non-formal education and development. Manchester: University of Manchester Monographs.Google Scholar
  61. Smith, Mark K., and Tony Jeffs. 1999. Informal education, conversation, democracy and learning. Nottingham: EducationalHeretics.Google Scholar
  62. Sumalee Sungsri. 2003. Kansueksa dalot chiwit puea sangkhom Thai nai sathawat thi 21 [Lifelong education for Thai society in the 21st century]. Bangkok: Prickwan Graphics Company.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2012. Kanrianru dalot chiwit samrab prathet Thai [Lifelong learning for Thailand]. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University printing house.Google Scholar
  64. ———. 2014. Naeo thang kanchat kansueksa tam athayasai puea songsuem kansueksa dalot chiwit nai ekasan kanson chut wichakansueksa dalot chiwit kae kansueksa nok rabob nuai thi 14 sakawicha sueksasat Mahawitayalai Sukhothaithammathirat [Guidelines for organizing informal education for promoting lifelong learning. Chapter 14 in Lifelong Education and Non-formal Education Textbook, School of Educational Studies, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University]. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University Printing House, 14-1–14-45.Google Scholar
  65. Sunthorn Sunanchai. 1987. Kansueksa dalot chiwit [Lifelong education]. Education Journal 7 (July–November: Faculty of Education, Srinakarintharawirot University.Google Scholar
  66. ———. 1988. Kansueksa nok rongrian: Adid patchuban lae anakhot nai 9 pi kansueksa nok rongrian [Non-formal education: The past, present and the future in 9 years of non-formal education]. Bangkok: Kansatsana Printing House.Google Scholar
  67. ———. 1989. Fifty years of adult education and nonformal education in Thailand. Adult Education and Development 33: 7–25.Google Scholar
  68. ———. 2000a. Khwamru phuenthan kansueksa dalot chiwit nai ekasan kanson chut wichakansueksa dalto chiwit lae kansueksa nok rabob nuai thi 1 in Lifelong Education and Non-Formal Education Textbook, School of Educational Studies, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University, Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University [Basic knowledge on Lifelong Education.” Chapter 1 in Lifelong Education and Non-Formal Education Textbook, School of Educational Studies, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University]. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University Printing House, 1–48.Google Scholar
  69. ———. 2000b. Wiwatanakan khong kansueksa nai ekasan kanson chut wichakansueksa dalto chiwit lae kansueksa nok rabob nuai thi 2 sakawicha sueksasat Mahawitayalai Sukhothaithammathirat [The evolution of education in Thailand. Chapter 2 in lifelong education and non-formal education textbook, School of Educational Studies, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University]. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University printing house, 49–116.Google Scholar
  70. ———. 2014. Khwamru phuen than nai kansueksa dalot chiwit nuai thi 1 nai ekasan kanson chut wichakansueksa dalto chiwit lae kansueksa nok rabob nusakawicha sueksasat Mahawitayalai Sukhothaithammathirat (STOU) [Basic knowledge in lifelong education. Chapter 1 in lifelong education and non-formal education textbook, School of Educational Studies, Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University]. Nonthaburi: Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University printing house, 1-1–1-72.Google Scholar
  71. Tight, Malcolm. 2002. Key concepts in adult education and training. 2nd ed. London: Routledge Falmer.Google Scholar
  72. Townsend, Coles, and Keith Edwin. 1977. Adult education in developing countries. 2nd ed. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  73. Wiwat Phanthawuthiyanon. 2013. Kowit Varapipatana. In Chachoenngsao model: Roi to thi sun hai nai wong kansueksa Thai [Chachoengsao model: The lost linkage in Thai education], 140–157. Bangkok: Pico.Google Scholar
  74. Yuphawong Homphaen. 2010. Thiraluek nganchapankitsop: Nang Malichien Pengwong, wanathit thi 14 Karakadakhom 2553 na chapanansathan Bansang amphoe Seka changwat Nongkhai [Funeral memory: Ms. Malichien Pengwong, Sunday, 14 July, 2010 at funeral site, Bansang Village, Seka District, Nongkhai Province]. Seka: Rosarin Apahung.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sukhothaithammathirat University (STOU)Chaengwattana Rd., Bangpood, PakkretNonthaburiThailand

Personalised recommendations