Production of Dissolving-Grade Pulp

Chapter

Abstract

Dissolving-grade pulps are commonly used for the production of cellulose derivatives and regenerated cellulose. To obtain products of high quality, these so-called “special” pulps must fulfill certain requirements, such as high cellulose content, low hemicellulose content, a uniform molecular weight distribution, and high cellulose reactivity. Xylan-degrading enzymes have been explored for selective removal of pentosans in preparing dissolving-grade pulp. The complete enzymatic hydrolysis of the hemicellulose in the pulp is difficult to achieve. Even with very high enzyme loadings and prolonged incubation periods, xylan hydrolysis is limited. Nevertheless, xylanase treatment may reduce the chemical loading required during caustic extraction or facilitate xylan extraction from kraft pulps. Xylanase treatment of unbleached pulp appears to be more effective because of the presence of more hemicellulose at this stage is accessible for enzymatic degradation. Alkaline extraction in conjunction with enzyme treatment leads to some improvement of the pulp properties. Enzymatic treatments have been shown to activate cellulose by enhancing cellulose accessibility and reactivity. A monocomponent endoglucanase with a cellulose-binding domain (CBD) has been shown to significantly improve the cellulose reactivity.

Keywords

Dissolving-grade pulp Enzymes Cellulose reactivity Xylan-degrading enzymes Hemicellulose Xylanase Pentosans Endoglucanase Cellulose-binding domain (CBD) Cellulase Monocomponent endoglucanase 

References

  1. Almlof Ambjornsson H, Ostberg L, Schenzel K, Germgrad ULF (2014) Enzyme pretreatment of dissolving pulp as a way to improve the following dissolution in NaOH/ZnO. Holzforschung 68(4):385–391Google Scholar
  2. Bajpai P (1997) Microbial xylanolytic enzyme system: properties and applications. Adv Appl Microbiol 43:141–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bajpai P, Bajpai PK (2001) Development of a process for the production of dissolving kraft pulp using xylanase enzyme. Appita J 54(4):381–384Google Scholar
  4. Bajpai P, Bajpai PK, Varadhan R (2005) Production of dissolving grade pulp with hemicellulase enzyme. In: Proceedings international pulp bleaching conference. Stockholm, Sweden, pp 303–305Google Scholar
  5. Bernier R Jr, Driguez H, Desrochers M (1983) Molecular cloning of a Bacillus subtilis xylanase gene in Escherichia coli. Gene 26:59–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Biely P (1985) Microbial Xylanolytic systems. Trends Biotechnol 3:286–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchert J, Tenkanen M, Kantelinen A, Viikari L (1994) Application of xylanases in the pulp and paper industry. Bioresour Technol 50:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cao Y, Tan H (2002) Effects of cellulase on the modification of cellulose. Carbohyd Res 337(14):1291–1296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cao Y, Tan H (2006) Improvement of alkali solubility of cellulose with enzymatic treatment. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 70(2):176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chauvet JM, Comtat J, Noe P (1987) Assistance in bleaching of never-dried pulps by the use of xylanases, consequences on pulp properties. In: Paris symposium on wood and pulping chemistry, pp 325–327Google Scholar
  11. Christov LP, Prior BA (1993) Xylan removal from dissolving pulp using enzymes of Aureobasidium pullulans. Biotechnol Lett 15:1269–1274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Christov LP, Prior BA (1994) Enzymatic prebleaching of sulphite pulps. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 42:492–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Christov LP, Akhtar M, Prior BA (1995) Biobleaching in dissolving pulp production. In: Proceedings of the 6th international conference on biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry: advances in applied and fundamental research, pp 625–628Google Scholar
  14. Christov LP, Prior BA (1996) Repeated treatments with Aureobasidium pullulans hemicellulases and alkali enhance biobleaching of sulphite pulps. Enzyme Microb Technol 18(4):244–250Google Scholar
  15. Christov LP, Akhtar M, Prior BA (1996) Impact of xylanase and fungal pretreatment on alkali solubility and brightness of dissolving pulp. Holzforschung 50:579–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collier J, Brodeur G, Yau E, Telotte J (2011) Enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp dissolved. In: N methyl morpholine oxide (NMMO) and ionic liquids proceeding: 2011 AIChE annual meetingGoogle Scholar
  17. Croon I, Jonsén H, Olofsson HG (1968) Hemicellulose in pulp viscose and yarn. Sven Papperstidning 71(2):40–45Google Scholar
  18. Duan C, Long Y, Li J, Ma X, Ni Y (2015) Changes of cellulose accessibility to cellulase due to fiber hornification and its impact on enzymatic viscosity control of dissolving pulp. Cellulose 22(4):2729–2736Google Scholar
  19. Eremeeva T, Bikova T, Eismonte M, Viesturs U, Treimanis A (2001) Fractionation and molecular characteristics of cellulose during enzymatic hydrolysis. Cellulose 8(1):69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Engström AC, Ek M, Henriksson G (2006) Improved accessibility and reactivity of dissolving pulp for the viscose process: pretreatment with monocomponent endoglucanase. Biomacromolecules 7(6):2027–2031CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fink HP, Weigel P, Ganster J, Rihm R, Puls J, Sixta H, Parajo JC (2004) Evaluation of new organosolv dissolving pulps. Part II: Structure and NMMO processability of the pulps. Cellulose 11(1):85–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gamerith G, Strutzenberger H (1992) In: Visser J et al. (eds) Xylans and xylanases. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 339–348Google Scholar
  23. Gehmayr V, Sixta H (2011) Dissolving pulps from enzyme treated kraft pulps for viscose application. Lenzing Ber 89:152–160Google Scholar
  24. Henriksson G, Christiernin M, Agnemo R (2005) Monocomponent endoglucanase treatment increases the reactivity of softwood sulphite dissolving pulp. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 32(5):211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hiett LA (1985) Dissolving cellulose: its present position and prospects for future development. Tappi J 68(2):42–48Google Scholar
  26. Hinck JF, Casebier RL, Hamilton JK (1985) Dissolving pulp manufacture. In: Ingruber OV, Kocurec MJ, Wong A (eds) Pulp and paper manufacture, vol 4. Joint text-book committee of the paper industry TAPPI, pp 213–243Google Scholar
  27. Ibarra D, Kopcke V, Ek M (2010) Behavior of different monocomponent endoglucanases on the accessibility and reactivity of dissolving-grade pulps for viscose process. Enzyme Microb Technol 47(7):355–362Google Scholar
  28. Jackson LS, Heitmann JA Jr, Joyce TW (1998) Production of dissolving pulp from recovered paper using enzymes. Tappi J 81:171–178Google Scholar
  29. Jeffries TW, Lins CW (1990) Effects of Aureobasidium pullulans xylanase on aspen thermomechanical and kraft pulps. In: Kirk TK, Chang H-M (eds) Biotechnology in pulp and paper manufacture. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, pp 191–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jeffries TW (1992) Enzymatic treatments of pulps. ACS Symp Ser 476:313–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jurasek L, Paice MG (1988) Biological treatments of pulps. Biomass 15:103–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kvarnlöf N (2007) Activation of dissolving pulps prior to viscose preparation Dissertation Karlstad University Studies, Faculty of Technology and Science, Chemical Engineering, SE-651 88 Karlstad, SWEDENGoogle Scholar
  33. Kopcke V, Ibarra D, Larsson PT, Ek M (2010a) Feasibility study on converting paper-grade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps. In: 11th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp, 16–19 Aug 2010, Hamburg, Germany, pp 149–152Google Scholar
  34. Köpcke V (2010b) Conversion of wood and non-wood papergrade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps. Doctoral Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  35. Kordsachia O, Rosskopf S, Patt R (2004) Production of spruce dissolving pulp with the prehydrolysis-alkaline sulfite process (PH-ASA). Lenzing Ber 83:24–34Google Scholar
  36. Kvarnlöf N, Germgård U, Jönsson L, Söderlund CA (2005) Enzymatic treatment to increase the reactivity of a dissolving pulp for viscose preparation. Appita J 59(3):242–246Google Scholar
  37. Lynd LR, Weimer PJ, van Zyl WH, Pretorius IS (2002) Microbial cellulose utilization: fundamentals and biotechnology. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66(3):506–577Google Scholar
  38. Mansfield SD, Mooney C, Saddler JN (1999) Substrate and enzyme characteristics that limit cellulose hydrolysis. Biotechnol Prog 15(5):804–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Minor JL (1986) Chemical linkage of polysaccharides to residual lignin in loblolly pine kraft pulps. J Wood Chem Technol 6(2):185–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Myburgh J, Prior BA, Kilian SG (1991) The temperature and pH properties of the extracellular hemicellulose-degrading enzymes of Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL Y 2311-1. Process Biochem 26:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Östberg L, Germgård ULF (2013) Some aspects on the activation of dissolving pulps and the Influence on the reactivity in a following Viscose stage. Cellul Chem Technol 47(3–4):165–169Google Scholar
  42. Paice MG, Jurasek L (1984) Removing hemicellulose from pulps by specific enzymic hydrolysis. J Wood Chem Technol 4:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Quintana E, Valls C, Vidal T, Blanca Roncero M (2014) New strategies to bleach dissolving pulps using enzymatic treatments. In: International pulp bleaching conference, Grenoble, France, October 29–31, 2014Google Scholar
  44. Rabinovich ML, Melnick MS, Bolobova AV (2002a) The structure and mechanism of action of cellulolytic enzymes. Biochemistry 67(8):850–871Google Scholar
  45. Rabinovich ML, Melnick MS, Bolobova AV (2002b) Microbial cellulases (review). Appl Biochem Microbiol 38(4):305–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rahkamo L, Siika-Aho M, Vehviläinen M, Dolk M, Viikari L, Nousiainen P, Buchert J (1996) Modification of hardwood dissolving pulp with purified Trichoderma reesei cellulases. Cellulose 3(1):153–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Rahkamo l, Viikari L, Buchert J, Paakkari T, Suortti T (1988) Enzymatic and alkaline treatments of hardwood dissolving pulp. Cellulose 5(2):79–88Google Scholar
  48. Rahkamo L, Siika-Aho M, Viikari L, Leppänen T, Buchert J (1998) Effects of cellulases and hemicellulases on the alkaline solubility of dissolving pulps. Holzforschung 52(6):630–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Roberts JC, McCarthy AJ, Flynn NJ, Broda P (1990) Modification of paper properties by pretreatment with Saccharomonospora viridis xylanase. Enzyme Microb Technol 12:210–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Senior DJ, Mayers PR, Miller D, Sutcliffe R, Tan L, Saddler JN (1988) Selective solubilization of xylan in pulp using a purified xylanase from Trichoderma harzianum. Biotechnol Lett 10(12):907–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shanshan Liu S, Wang Q, Yang G, Chen J, Ni Y, Ji X (2015) Kinetics of viscosity decrease by cellulase treatment of bleached hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. BioResources 10(2):2418–2424Google Scholar
  52. Sixta H (2006) Chemical pulping. In: Handbook of pulp. Wiley-VCH Verlag GMbH & Co, KGaA, Weinheim, pp 3–19Google Scholar
  53. Sixta H, Harms H, Dapia S, Parajo JC, Puls J, Saake B, Fink HP, Röder T (2004) Evaluation of new organosolv dissolving pulps. Part I: preparation, analytical characterization and viscose processability. Cellulose 11(1):73–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sixta H, Iakovlev M, Testova L, Roselli A, Hummel M, Borrega M, van Heiningen A, Froschauer C, Schottenberger H (2013) Novel concepts of dissolving pulp production. Cellulose 4Google Scholar
  55. Viikari L, Ranua M, Kantelinen A, Linko M, Sundquist J (1986) Bleaching with enzymes In: Proceedings of 3rd international conference on biotechnology in the pulp and paper industry, STFI, Stockholm, pp 67Google Scholar
  56. Viikari L, Ranua M, Kantelinen A, Linko M, Sundquist J (1987) Application of enzymes in bleaching. In: Proceedings of 4th international symposium on wood and pulping chemistry, vol 1, Paris, pp 151Google Scholar
  57. Vikkari L, Kantelinen A, Poutanen K, Ranua M (1990) Characterization of pulps treated with hemicellulolytic enzymes prior to bleaching. In: Kirk TK, Chang H-M (eds) Biotechnology in pulp and paper manufacture. Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, pp 145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Viikari L, Tenkanen M, Buchert J, Ratto M, Bailey M, Siika-aho M, Linko M (1993) Hemicellulases for industrial applications. In: Saddler JN (ed) Bioconversion of forest and agricultural plant residues. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 131–182Google Scholar
  59. Viikari L, Kantelinen A, Sundquist J, Linko M (1994) Xylanases in bleaching: from an idea to the industry. FEMS Microbiol Rev 13:335–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vila C, Santos V, Parajo JC (2004) Dissolving pulp from TCF bleached acetosolv beech pulp. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 79:1098–1104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wang Q, Liu S, Yang G, Chen J, Ji X, Ni Y (2016) Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp. Bioresour Technol 212:160–163Google Scholar
  62. Wang Q, Yuan T, Liu S, Yang G, Li W, Yang R (2017) Enzymatic activation of dissolving pulp with cationic polyacrylamide to enhance cellulase adsorption. J Bioresour Bioprod 2(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.21967/jbb.v2i1
  63. Wood TM, McCrae SI (1979) Synergism between enzymes involved in the solubilization of native cellulose. Adv Chem Ser 181:181–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zhang YHP, Lynd LR (2004) Toward an aggregated understanding of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose: noncomplexed cellulase system. Biotechnol Bioeng 88(7):797–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zhao L (2009) Xylan removal by xylanase for the production of dissolving pulp from bamboo. Thesis, Master of Applied Science. The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, CanadaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pulp and Paper ConsultantKanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations