Self-assembled Graphene/Graphene Oxide-Based Nanocomposites Toward Photodynamic Therapy Applications

  • Tifeng Jiao
  • Ruirui Xing
  • Lexin Zhang
  • Jingxin Zhou


With unique structure and characteristics, graphene has become one of the most intensively explored carbon allotropes in materials science and accompanied by increasing research interest for drug delivery applications. In addition, phototherapy is a kind of medical treatment with light utilization for treating diseases such as cancers and peripheral infections. This chapter shows an extensive overview of the main principles and the recent strategies about fabricating various self-assembling graphene-based nanocomposites and nanomaterials toward photodynamic therapy applications. The up-to-date advances for multicomponent complexed graphene composites with drug molecules are also reviewed. Finally, challenges and outlooks in materials development for photodynamic therapy applications and drug delivery are suggested.


Graphene Graphene oxide Nanocomposites Self-assembly Photodynamic therapy Biomedical applications Theranostic nanomedicine 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 21473153), the Support Program for the Top Young Talents of Hebei Province, the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2015M580214), the Scientific and Technological Research and Development Program of Qinhuangdao City (Nos. 201701B004 and 201502A006), and the Open Funding Project of the State Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering (No. 2013KF-02).


  1. 1.
    DeRosa MC, Crutchey RJ (2002) Photosensitized singlet oxygen and its applications. Coord Chem Rev 233–234:351–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biju V, Mundayoor S, Omkumar RV, Anas A, Ishikawa M (2010) Bioconjugated quantum dots for cancer research: Present status, prospects and remaining issues. Biotechnol Adv 28:199–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Moan J (1990) On the diffusion length of singlet oxygen in cells and tissues. J Photochem Photobiol B-Biol 6:343–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clo E, Synder JW, Ogilby PR, Gothelf KV (2007) Control and selectivity of photosensitized singlet oxygen production: challenges in complex biological systems. ChemBioChem 8:475–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lim DJ, Sim M, Oh L, Lim K, Park H (2014) Carbon-based drug delivery carriers for cancer therapy. Arch. Pharm. Res. 37:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zhang L, Li Y, Yu JC (2014) Chemical modification of inorganic nanostructures for targeted and controlled drug delivery in cancer treatment. J Mater Chem B 2:452–470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shanmugam V, Selvakumar S, Yeh CS (2014) Near-infrared light-responsive nanomaterials in cancer therapeutics. Chem Soc Rev 43:6254–6287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li Y, Dong H, Li Y, Shi D (2015) Graphene-based nanovehicles for photodynamic medical therapy. Int J Nanomed 10:2451–2459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sanchez VC, Jachak A, Hurt RH, Kane AB (2012) Biological interactions of graphene-family nanomaterials: an interdisciplinary review. Chem Res Toxicol 25:15–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang P, Wang L, Wang H (2015) Smart supramolecular nanosystems for bioimaging and drug delivery. Chin J Chem 33:59–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Meng F, Lu W, Li Q, Byun JH, Oh Y, Chou TW (2015) Graphene-based fibers: a review. Adv Mater 27:5113–5131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ren X, Chen H, Yang V, Sun D (2014) Iron oxide nanoparticle-based theranostics for cancer imaging and therapy. Front Chem Sci Eng 8:253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biju V, Itoh T, Ishikawa M (2010) Delivering quantum dots to cells: Bioconjugated quantum dots for targeted and nonspecific extracellular and intracellular imaging. Chem Soc Rev 39:3031–3056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bruchez M, Moronne M, Gin P, Weiss S, Alivisatos AP (1998) Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels. Science 281:2013–2016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chan WCW, Nie SM (1998) Quantum dot bioconjugates for ultrasensitive nonisotopic detection. Science 281:2016–2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rizvi SB, Ghaderi S, Keshtgar M, Seifalian AM (2010) Semiconductor quantum dots as fluorescent probes for in vitro and in vivo bio-molecular and cellular imaging. Nano Rev. 1:5161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cheng L, Yang K, Zhang S, Shao M, Lee S, Liu Z (2010) Highly-sensitive multiplexed in vivo imaging using PEGylated upconversion nanoparticles. Nano Res 3:722–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang P, Steelant W, Kumar M, Scholfield M (2007) Versatile photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy at infrared excitation. J Am Chem Soc 129:4526–4527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhou J, Zhou L, Dong C, Feng Y, Wei S, Shen J, Wang X (2008) Preparation and photodynamic properties of water-soluble hypocrellin A-silica nanospheres. Mater Lett 62:2910–2913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Zhou L, Liu JH, Zhang J, Wei SH, Feng YY, Zhou JH, Yu BY, Shen J (2010) New sol–gel silica nanovehicle preparation for photodynamic therapy in vitro. Int J Pharm 386:131–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Yan F, Kopelman R (2003) The embedding of meta-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)-chlorin into silica nanoparticle platforms for photodynamic therapy and their singlet oxygen production and pH-dependent optical properties. Photochem Photobiol 78:587–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Liu K, Xing RR, Zou QL, Ma GH, Mohwald H, Yan XH (2016) Simple peptide-tuned self-assembly of photosensitizers towards anticancer photodynamic therapy. Angew Chem Int Edit 55:3036–3039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Xing RR, Liu K, Jiao TF, Zhang N, Ma K, Zhang RY, Zou QL, Ma GH, Yan XH (2016) An injectable self-assembling collagen-gold hybrid hydrogel for combinatorial antitumor photothermal/photodynamic therapy. Adv Mater 28:3669–3676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang MF, Murakami T, Ajima K, Tsuchida K, Sandanayaka ASD, Ito O, Iijima S, Yudasaka M (2008) Fabrication of ZnPc/protein nanohorns for double photodynamic and hyperthermic cancer phototherapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105:14773–14778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tian B, Wang C, Zhang S, Feng L, Liu Z (2011) Photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy delivered by nano-graphene oxide. ACS Nano 5:7000–7009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhu Z, Tang Z, Philips JA, Yang R, Wang H, Tan W (2008) Regulation of singlet oxygen generation using single-walled carbon nanotubes. J Am Chem Soc 130:10856–10857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Xiao H, Zhu B, Wang D, Pang Y, He L, Ma X, Wang R, Jin C, Chen Y, Zhu X (2012) Photodynamic effects of chlorin e6 attached to single wall carbon nanotubes through noncovalent interactions. Carbon 50:1681–1689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Banerjee I, Douaisi MP, Mondal D, Kane RS (2012) Light-activated nanotube–porphyrin conjugates as effective antiviral agents. Nanotechnology 23:105101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liao X, Zhang X (2012) Preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity of carbon nanotube-chitosan-phycocyanin complex. Nanotechnology 23:035101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Gallavardin T, Maurin M, Marotte S, Simon T, Gabudean AM, Bretonniere Y, Lindgren M, Lerouge F, Baldeck PL, Stephan O, Leverrier Y, Marvel J, Parola S, Maury O, Andraud C (2011) Photodynamic therapy and two-photon bio-imaging applications of hydrophobic chromophores through amphiphilic polymer delivery. Photochem Photobiol Sci 10:1216–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lee SJ, Koo H, Lee DE, Min S, Lee S, Chen X, Choi Y, Leary JF, Park K, Jeong SY, Kwon IC, Kim K, Choi K (2011) Tumor-homing photosensitizer-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles for synchronous photodynamic imaging and therapy based on cellular on/off system. Biomaterials 32:4021–4029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee SJ, Park K, Oh YK, Kwon SH, Her S, Kim IS, Choi K, Lee SJ, Kim H, Lee SG, Kim K, Kwon IC (2009) Tumor specificity and therapeutic efficacy of photosensitizer-encapsulated glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles in tumor-bearing mice. Biomaterials 30:2929–2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang XL, Zeng Y, Zheng YZ, Chen JF, Tao X, Wang LX, Teng Y (2011) Rose bengal-grafted biodegradable microcapsules: singlet-oxygen generation and cancer-cell incapacitation. Chem Eur J 17:11223–11229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yoon HY, Koo H, Choi KY, Lee SJ, Kim K, Kwon IC, Leary JF, Park K, Yuk SH, Park JH, Choi K (2012) Tumor-targeting hyaluronic acid nanoparticles for photodynamic imaging and therapy. Biomaterials 33:3980–3989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wohrle D, Shopova M, Moser JG, Kliesch H, Michelsen U, Muller S, Weitemeyer A (1996) Liposome delivered and polymeric metal complexes as potential sensitizers for the photodynamic therapy of cancer. Macromol Symp 105:127–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wohrle D, Shopova M, Muller S, Milev AD, Mantareva VN, Krastev KK (1993) Liposome-delivered Zn (II)-2,3-naphthalocyanines as potential sensitizers for PDT: synthesis, photochemical, pharmacokinetic and phototherapeutic studies. J Photochem Photobio B: Biol 21:155–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Valduga G, Reddi E, Garbisa S, Jori G (1998) Photosensitization of cells with different metastatic potentials by liposome-delivered Zn (II)-phthalocyanine. Int J Cancer 75:412–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ichikawa K, Hikita T, Maeda N, Takeuchi Y, Namba Y, Oku N (2004) PEGylation of liposome decreases the susceptibility of liposomal drug in cancer photodynamic therapy. Biol Pharm Bull 27:443–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Janardhanan SK, Narayan S, Abbineni G, Hayhurst A, Mao C (2010) Architectonics of phage-liposome nanowebs as optimized photosensitizer vehicles for photodynamic cancer therapy. Mol Cancer Ther 9:2524–2535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sadzuka Y, Iwasaki F, Sugiyama I, Horiuchi K, Hirano T, Ozawa H, Kanayama N, Sonobe T (2007) Study on liposomalization of zinc-coproporphyrin I as a novel drug in photodynamic therapy. Int J Pharm 338:306–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2007) The rise of graphene. Nat Mater 6:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Geim AK (2009) Graphene: status and prospects. Science 324:1530–1534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kakran M, Li L (2012) Carbon nanomaterials for drug delivery. Key Eng Mater 508:76–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wang Y, Li Z, Wang J, Li J, Lin Y (2011) Graphene and graphene oxide: biofunctionalization and applications in biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol 29:205–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Feng L, Wu L, Qu X (2013) New horizons for diagnostics and therapeutic applications of graphene and graphene oxide. Adv Mater 25:168–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gonçalves G, Vila M, Portolés MT, Vallet-Regi M, Gracio J, Marques PAA (2013) Nano-graphene oxide: a potential multifunctional platform for cancer therapy. Adv Healthcare Mater 2:1072–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yang K, Feng L, Shi X, Liu Z (2013) Nano-graphene in biomedicine: theranostic applications. Chem Soc Rev 42:530–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shen H, Zhang L, Liu M, Zhang Z (2012) Biomedical applications of graphene. Theranostics 2:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shibu ES, Hamada M, Murase N, Biju V (2013) Nanomaterials formulations for photothermal and photodynamic therapy of cancer. J Photoch Photobio C 15:53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Liu J, Cui L, Losic D (2013) Graphene and graphene oxide as new nanocarriers for drug delivery applications. Acta Biomater 9:9243–9257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bitounis D, Ali-Boucetta H, Hong BH, Min DH, Kostarelos K (2013) Prospects and challenges of graphene in biomedical applications. Adv Mater 25:2258–2268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chen Y, Tan C, Zhang H, Wang L (2015) Two-dimensional graphene analogues for biomedical applications. Chem Soc Rev 44:2681–2701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nurunnabi M, Parvez K, Nafiujjaman M, Revuri V, Khan HA, Feng X, Lee Y (2015) Bioapplication of graphene oxide derivatives: drug/gene delivery, imaging, polymeric modification, toxicology, therapeutics and challenges. RSC Adv 5:42141–42161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dong H, Dong C, Ren T, Li Y, Shi D (2014) Surface-engineered graphene-based nanomaterials for drug delivery. J Biomed Nanotechnol 10:2086–2106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Caffo M, Merlo L, Marino D, Caruso G (2015) Graphene in neurosurgery: the beginning of a new era. Nanomedicine (Lond) 10:615–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zhou X, Liang F (2014) Application of graphene/graphene oxide in biomedicine and biotechnology. Curr Med Chem 21:855–869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yang K, Feng L, Liu Z (2015) The advancing uses of nanographene in drug delivery. Expert Opin Drug Deliv 12:601–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhang R, Xing R, Jiao T, Ma K, Chen C, Ma G, Yan X (2016) Carrier-free, chemo-photodynamic dual nanodrugs via self-assembly for synergistic antitumor therapy. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:13262–13269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shen H, Zhang L, Liu M, Zhang Z (2012) Biomedical applications of graphene. Theranostics 2:283–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Orecchioni M, Cabizza R, Bianco A, Delogu LG (2015) Graphene as cancer theranostic tool: progress and future challenges. Theranostics 5:710–723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zhou L, Jiang H, Wei S, Ge X, Zhou J, Shen J (2012) High-efficiency loading of hypocrellin B on graphene oxide for photodynamic therapy. Carbon 50:5594–5604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wojtoniszak M, Roginska D, Machalinski B, Drozdzik M, Mijowska E (2013) Graphene oxide functionalized with methylene blue and its performance in singlet oxygen generation. Mater Res Bull 48:2636–2639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zhou L, Zhou L, Wei S, Ge X, Zhou J, Jiang H, Li F, Shen J (2014) Combination of chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy using graphene oxide as drug delivery system. J Photoch Photobio B 135:7–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Grinceviciute N, Snopok B, Snitka V (2014) Functional two-dimensional nanoarchitectures based on chemically converted graphene oxide and hematoporphyrin under the sulfuric acid treatment. Chem Eng J 255:577–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yan L, Chang YN, Yin W, Tian G, Zhou L, Liu X, Xing G, Zhao L, Gu Z, Zhao Y (2014) On-demand generation of singlet oxygen from a smart graphene complex for the photodynamic treatment of cancer cells. Biomater Sci 2:1412–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jiang BP, Hu LF, Wang DJ, Ji SC, Shen XC, Liang H (2014) Graphene loading water-soluble phthalocyanine for dual-modality photothermal/photodynamic therapy via a one-step method. J Mater Chem B 2:7141–7148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Su S, Wang J, Wei J, Martinez-Zaguilan R, Qiu J, Wang S (2015) Efficient photothermal therapy of brain cancer through porphyrin functionalized graphene oxide. New J Chem 39:5743–5749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zhou L, Wang W, Tang J, Zhou JH, Jiang HJ, Shen J (2011) Graphene oxide noncovalent photosensitizer and its anticancer activity in vitro. Chem Eur J 17:12084–12091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Miao W, Shim G, Lee S, Lee S, Choe YS, Oh YK (2013) Safety and tumor tissue accumulation of pegylated graphene oxide nanosheets for co-delivery of anticancer drug and photosensitizer. Biomaterials 34:3402–3410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhi X, Fang H, Bao C, Shen G, Zhang J, Wang K, Guo S, Wan T, Cui D (2013) The immunotoxicity of graphene oxides and the effect of PVP-coating. Biomaterials 34:5254–5261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sahu A, Choi WI, Lee JH, Tae G (2013) Graphene oxide mediated delivery of methylene blue for combined photodynamic and photothermal therapy. Biomaterials 34:6239–6248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Gollavelli G, Ling YC (2014) Magnetic and fluorescent graphene for dual modal imaging and single light induced photothermal and photodynamic therapy of cancer cells. Biomaterials 35:4499–4507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yan X, Niu G, Lin J, Jin AJ, Hu H, Tang Y, Zhang Y, Wu A, Lu J, Zhang S, Huang P, Shen B, Chen X (2015) Enhanced fluorescence imaging guided photodynamic therapy of sinoporphyrin sodium loaded graphene oxide. Biomaterials 42:94–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tian J, Ding L, Wang Q, Hu Y, Jia L, Yu JS, Ju H (2015) Folate receptor-targeted and Cathepsin B-Activatable nanoprobe for in situ therapeutic monitoring of photosensitive cell death. Anal Chem 87:3841–3848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Xu J, Zeng F, Wu H, Yu C, Wu S (2015) Dual-targeting nanosystem for enhancing photodynamic therapy efficiency. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:9287–9296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tan X, Feng L, Zhang J, Yang K, Zhang S, Liu Z, Peng R (2013) Functionalization of graphene oxide generates a unique interface for selective serum protein interactions. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:1370–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Wu C, He Q, Zhu A, Li D, Xu M, Yang H, Liu Y (2014) Synergistic anticancer activity of photo- and chemoresponsive nanoformulation based on polylysine-functionalized graphene. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:21615–21623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hou L, Feng Q, Wang Y, Zhang H, Jiang G, Yang X, Ren J, Zhu X, Shi Y, Zhang Z (2015) Multifunctional nanosheets based on hyaluronic acid modified graphene oxide for tumor-targeting chemophotothermal therapy. J Nanopart Res 17:162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dong HQ, Zhao ZL, Wen HY, Li YY, Guo FF, Shen AJ, Pilger F, Lin C, Shi DL (2010) Poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated nano-graphene oxide for photodynamic therapy. Sci China Chem 53:2265–2271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sun Z, Huang P, Tong G, Lin J, Jin A, Rong P, Zhu L, Nie L, Niu G, Cao F, Chen X (2013) VEGF-loaded graphene oxide as theranostics for multi-modality imaging-monitored targeting therapeutic angiogenesis of ischemic muscle. Nanoscale 5:6857–6866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Li F, Park SJ, Ling D, Park W, Han JY, Na K, Char K (2013) Hyaluronic acid-conjugated graphene oxide/photosensitizer nanohybrids for cancer targeted photodynamic therapy. J Mater Chem B 1:1678–1686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Wang YW, Fu YY, Wu LJ, Li J, Yang HH, Chen GN (2013) Targeted photothermal ablation of pathogenic bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, with nanoscale reduced graphene oxide. J Mater Chem B 1:2496–2501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Yan X, Hu H, Lin J, Jin AJ, Niu G, Zhang S, Huang P, Shen B, Chen X (2015) Optical and photoacoustic dual-modality imaging guided synergistic photodynamic/photothermal therapies. Nanoscale 7:2520–2526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zeng Y, Yang Z, Luo S, Li H, Liu C, Hao Y, Liu J, Wang W, Li R (2015) Fast and facile preparation of PEGylated graphene from graphene oxide by lysosome targeting delivery of photosensitizer to efficiently enhance photodynamic therapy. RSC Adv 5:57725–57734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Taratula O, Patel M, Schumann C, Naleway MA, Pang AJ, He H, Taratula O (2015) Phthalocyanine-loaded graphene nanoplatform for imaging-guided combinatorial phototherapy. Int J Nanomed 10:2347–2362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Tian B, Wang C, Zhang S, Feng L, Liu Z (2011) Photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy delivered by nano-graphene oxide. ACS Nano 5:7000–7009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Huang P, Xu C, Lin J, Wang C, Wang X, Zhang C, Zhou X, Guo S, Cui D (2011) Folic acid-conjugated graphene oxide loaded with photosensitizers for targeting photodynamic therapy. Theranostics 1:240–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rong P, Yang K, Srivastan A, Kiesewetter DO, Yue X, Wang F, Nie L, Bhirde A, Wang Z, Liu Z, Niu G, Wang W, Chen X (2014) Photosensitizer loaded nano-graphene for multimodality imaging guided tumor photodynamic therapy. Theranostics 4:229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wang Y, Wang H, Liu D, Song S, Wang X, Zhang H (2013) Graphene oxide covalently grafted upconversion nanoparticles for combined NIR mediated imaging and photothermal/photodynamic cancer therapy. Biomaterials 34:7715–7724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ristic BZ, Milenkovic MM, Dakic IR, Todorovic-Markovic BM, Milosavljevic MS, Budimir MD (2014) Photodynamic antibacterial effect of graphene quantum dots. Biomaterials 5:4428–4435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chang G, Wang Y, Gong B, Xiao Y, Chen Y, Wang S, Li S, Huang F, Shen Y, Xie A (2015) Reduced graphene oxide/amaranth extract/AuNPs composite hydrogel on tumor cells as integrated platform for localized and multiple synergistic therapy. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:11246–11256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hu Z, Li J, Li C, Zhao S, Li N, Wang Y, Wei F, Chen L, Huang Y (2013) Folic acid-conjugated graphene–ZnO nanohybrid for targeting photodynamic therapy under visible light irradiation. J Mater Chem B 1:5003–5013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hu Z, Zhao F, Wang Y, Huang Y, Chen L, Li N, Li J, Li Z, Yi G (2014) Facile fabrication of a C60–polydopamine–graphene nanohybrid for single light induced photothermal and photodynamic therapy. Chem Commun 50:10815–10818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nellore BPV, Pramanik A, Chavva SR, Sinha SS, Robinson C, Fan Z, Kanchanapally R, Grennell J, Weaver I, Hamme AT, Ray PC (2014) Aptamer-conjugated theranostic hybrid graphene oxide with highly selective biosensing and combined therapy capability. Faraday Discuss 175:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tang Y, Hu H, Zhang MG, Song J, Nie L, Wang S, Niu G, Huang P, Lu G, Chen X (2015) An aptamer-targeting photoresponsive drug delivery system using “off–on” graphene oxide wrapped mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Nanoscale 7:6304–6310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hu Z, Li J, Huang Y, Chen L, Li Z (2015) Functionalized graphene/C60 nanohybrid for targeting photothermally enhanced photodynamic therapy. RSC Adv 5:654–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Nafiujjaman M, Nurunnabi M, Kang SH, Reeck GR, Khand HA, Lee YK (2015) Ternary graphene quantum dot–polydopamine–Mn3O4 nanoparticles for optical imaging guided photodynamic therapy and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. J Mater Chem B 3:5815–5823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Chavva SR, Pramanik A, Nellore BPV, Sinha SS, Yust B, Kanchanapally R, Fan Z, Crouch RA, Singh AK, Neyland B, Robinson K, Dai X, Sardar D, Lu Y, Ray PC (2014) Theranostic graphene oxide for prostate cancer detection and treatment. Part Part Syst Charact 31:1252–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chen Z, Li Z, Wang J, Ju E, Zhou L, Ren J, Qu X (2014) A multi-synergistic platform for sequential irradiation-activated high-performance apoptotic cancer therapy. Adv Funct Mater 24:522–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hu B, Wang N, Han L, Chen ML, Wang JH (2015) Magnetic nanohybrids loaded with bimetal core–shell–shell nanorods for bacteria capture, separation, and near-infrared photothermal treatment. Chem Eur J 21:6582–6589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kim YK, Na HK, Kim S, Jang H, Chang SJ, Min DH (2015) One-pot synthesis of multifunctional Au@graphene oxide nanocolloid core@shell nanoparticles for Raman bioimaging, photothermal, and photodynamic Therapy. Small 11:2527–2535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Xing R, Jiao T, Liu Y, Ma K, Zou Q, Ma G, Yan X (2016) Co-assembly of graphene oxide and albumin/photosensitizer nanohybrids towards enhanced photodynamic therapy. Polymers 8:181CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tifeng Jiao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ruirui Xing
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lexin Zhang
    • 1
  • Jingxin Zhou
    • 1
  1. 1.Hebei Key Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, School of Environmental and Chemical EngineeringYanshan UniversityQinhuangdaoChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Biochemical EngineeringInstitute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations