Innovative Development

  • Angang Hu
  • Yilong Yan
  • Xiao Tang


As can be seen from the common characteristics of modern economic development, a country or region in different development levels or stages will have different driving forces of development. In general, a country or region in the low-income stage is basically driven by primary elements such as land, resources, energy, and a labor force, whereas a country or region in the lower middle-income stage is largely driven by capital elements such as the domestic savings rate, investment rate, and investment scale, which are of great importance. In contrast, a country or region in the upper middle-income stage is driven by technological elements, which are usually associated with the introduction of large-scale technology, and one in the high-income stage must be driven by a reliance on innovation.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institution for Contemporary China StudiesTsinghua UniverisyBeijingChina

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