Agroforestry pp 725-738 | Cite as

Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change Through Agroforestry Practices in the Tropics

  • S. L. Swamy
  • V. P. Tewari


The rapidly increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere are mainly responsible for global warming and consequences of climate change. Agriculture is the mainstay of livelihood and food security to millions of people living in tropical countries; climate change is posing a serious threat on food production, nutritional security, and livelihoods of poor farming communities of developing countries. This has prompted a renewed interest in mitigation and adaptation strategies to minimize negative impacts of climate change on agroecosystems through introducing promising tree-based alternate land-use systems. Agroforestry systems (AFS) indeed offer viable opportunity to mitigating the atmospheric accumulation of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and potential for transforming into resilient farming systems and help the farmers in adapting to climate change in tropics. The potential of AFS to accumulate carbon (C) was estimated to be 12–228 Mg ha−1, with an average of 95 Mg ha−1. Agroforestry practices also offer climate change adaptation by means of buffering agricultural crops against water deficiencies through ameliorating microclimate, maintaining long-term soil health, and minimizing the incidence of insect and pests under climate change scenarios. The degree of mitigation and adaptation varies according to the structural and functional complexities of systems. In addition, agroforestry systems will provide many tangible benefits to farming communities in the form of food, fuel wood, fodder, timber, medicine, fiber, etc. and be able to address the diverse issues of livelihoods, unemployment, and poverty. Agroforestry systems in developing countries shall ensure the farmers in gaining additional economic benefits of C sequestration by C trading with developed countries under CDM projects. It will help the farmers to improve their farm economy besides securing environmental benefits to global communities. The chapter discusses the potential role of agroforestry systems for mitigation and adaptation to climate change and buffering climate extremities in diverse socioeconomic and environmental setups in tropics.


Buffering effect Carbon sequestration Carbon trading Environmental benefits Green house gases Livelihood securities Microclimate Resilient agriculture Soil organic C 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Indira Gandhi Agricultural UniversityRaipurIndia
  2. 2.Himalayan Forest Research InstituteShimlaIndia

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