Advertisement

Agroforestry pp 705-724 | Cite as

Urban and Peri-urban Agroforestry as Multifunctional Land Use

  • S. Borelli
  • M. Conigliaro
  • S. Quaglia
  • F. Salbitano
Chapter

Abstract

In this era of global changes, rapid urbanization rates, climate change impacts and growing socio-environmental concerns are negatively impacting on various aspects of urban life, such as human health and well-being, urban economy stability, biodiversity levels, land productivity and natural resources availability.

In this context, cities – having become the main centres of consumption and production worldwide – need to move towards more sustainable and resilient urban development models, considering novel approaches aimed at integrating grey and green infrastructure, economic growth and environmental concerns, knowledge diffusion and poverty and hunger eradication.

In this regard, the implementation of urban and peri-urban agroforestry (UPAF) systems – associated with the integration of urban food systems into urban planning – can greatly support the provision of ecosystem services to urban dwellers, thus contributing to the improvement of their livelihood through increased food and nutrition security, energy and fresh water availability, regulation of local climate, carbon sequestration, maintenance of genetic diversity, recreation opportunities and health improvement. In this sense, UPAF is emerging as a new urban practice addressed to promote sustainable land use as well as the integration between urban and rural development. However, its implementation in urban contexts presents several key challenges, such as land tenure conflicts, lack of integration with urban policies and plans and technical knowledge, as well as necessity of innovative governance models.

In this context, the aim of this chapter is to outline, through a review of the relevant literature and case studies from both developed and developing countries, the benefits deriving from the implementation of UPAF systems and highlight how these practices can support the improvement of urban sustainability and resilience, particularly in terms of enhancement of provisioning, cultural, regulating and supporting ecosystem services.

Keywords

Ecosystem services Resilience Sustainability Urban agroforestry Urban planning Land tenure conflicts 

References

  1. Alberti M (2005) The effects of urban patterns on ecosystem function. Int Reg Sci Rev 28(2):168–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Altieri MA, Companioni N, Cañizares K, Murphy C, Rosset P, Bourque M, Nicholls CI (1999) The greening of the “barrios”: urban agriculture for food security in Cuba. Agric Hum Values 16(2):131–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barthel S, Folke C, Colding J (2010) Social–ecological memory in urban gardens – retaining the capacity for management of ecosystem services. Glob Environ Chang 20(2):255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barthel S, Parker J, Ernstson H (2013) Food and green space in cities: a resilience lens on gardens and urban environmental movements. Urban Stud 52(7):1321–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beacon Food Forest (2016) Beacon Food Forest Permaculture Project. Webpage. Available at: http://beaconfoodforest.org/
  6. Borelli S, Chen Y, Conigliaro M, Salbitano F (2015) Green infrastructure: a new paradigm for developing cities. Technical paper at the XIV World Forestry Congress, Durban, South Africa, 7–11 September 2015Google Scholar
  7. Camps-Calvet M, Langemeyer J, Calvet-Mir L, Gómez-Baggethun E (2016) Ecosystem services provided by urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain: insights for policy and planning. Environ Sci Pol 62:14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chadwick LC (1971) 3000 years of arboriculture: past, present and the future. Arborists News 36(6):73–78Google Scholar
  9. Chiesura A (2004) The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landsc Urban Plan 68(1):129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. City of London Corporation (2010) Rising to the challenge: the city of London climate change adaptation strategy. First published May 2007, revised and updated January 2010. London, City of London Corporation. Available at: https://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/services/environment-and-planning/sustainability/Documents/climate-change-adaptation-strategy-2010-update.pdf
  11. Clark KH, Nicholas KA (2013) Introducing urban food forestry: a multifunctional approach to increase food security and provide ecosystem services. Landsc Ecol 28(9):1649–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Coley RL, Sullivan WC, Kuo FE (1997) Where does community grow? The social context created by nature in urban public housing. Environ Behav 29(4):468–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daily GC (1997) Nature’s services: societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. Di Leo N, Escobedo FJ, Dubbeling M (2016) The role of urban green infrastructure in mitigating land surface temperature in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Environ Dev Sustain 18:373–392Google Scholar
  15. Donadieu P (2013) Campagne Urbane. Una proposta di paesaggio per la città. Donzelli, RomaGoogle Scholar
  16. Drescher AW, Holmer RJ, Iaquinta DL (2006) Urban homegardens and allotment gardens for sustainable livelihoods: management strategies and institutional environments. In: Tropical homegardens. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 317–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Escobedo FJ, Wagner JE, Nowak DJ, De la Maza CL, Rodriguez M, Crane DE (2008) Analysing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile’s policy of using urban forests to improve air quality. J Environ Manag 86(1):148–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. FAO (2013) Advancing agroforestry on the policy agenda: a guide for decision-makers. In: Place F, Gauthier M (eds). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3182e.pdf
  19. FAO (2016) Guidelines on urban and peri-urban forestry, by Salbitano F, Borelli S, Conigliaro M, Chen Y. FAO Forestry paper no. 178. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. Available at: http://www.fao.org/3/a-i6210e.pdf
  20. Firebaugh G (1979) Structural determinants of urbanization in Asia and Latina America, 1950–1970. Am Soc Rev 44:199–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garcia LD, Fernàndez XS, Swagemakers P (2015) Edible landscape: food and services from common-land use in the Vigo city region, in Urban Agriculture Magazine, vol 29, pp 54–56Google Scholar
  22. Gliessman SR (1998) Agroecology: ecological processes in sustainable agriculture. Ann Arbor Press, Chelsea/MichiganGoogle Scholar
  23. INSD-Institut National de la Statistique et de la Démographie (2007) Resultants preliminares du recensement général de la population et de l’habitation (RGPH) de 2006. Burkina Faso, 51 pGoogle Scholar
  24. International Energy Agency (2015) ‘World energy outlook’. Available at: http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/resources/energydevelopment/energyaccessdatabase/
  25. Jose S (2009) Agroforestry for ecosystem services and environmental benefits: an overview. Agrofor Syst 76(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jose D, Shanmugaratnam N (1993) Traditional homegardens of Kerala: a sustainable human ecosystem. Agrofor Syst 24(2):203–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kaimowit D (2005) Forests and human health: some vital connections. Swedish CGIAR, BogorGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaplan R (1983) The analysis of perception via preference: a strategy for studying how the environment is experienced. Landscape Plann 12(2):161–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Konijnendijk CC (2003) A decade of urban forestry in Europe. Forest Policy Econ 5(2):173–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kumar BM, Nair PR (2004) The enigma of tropical homegardens. In: New vistas in agroforestry. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 135–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lassoie J, Buck L, Current D (2009) The development of agroforestry as an integrated land use management strategy. In: Garrett HE (ed) North American agroforesty: an integrated science and practice. America Society of Agronomy, Madison, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  32. Leakey RRB (1996) Definition of agroforestry revisited. Agrofor Today 8(1):8–10Google Scholar
  33. Lee-Smith D, Prain G (2006) Understanding the links between agriculture and health. Focus 13. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  34. Lentz DL, Dunning NP, Scarborough VL, Magee KS, Thompson KM, Weaver E, Carr C, Terry RE, Islebe G, Tankersley KB, Grazioso Sierra L, Jones JG, Buttles P, Valdez F, Ramos Hernandez CE (2014) Forests, fields, and the edge of sustainability at the ancient Maya city of Tikal. PNAS 111(52):18513–18518CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  35. Lok R (ed) (1998) Huertos caseros tradicionales de America Central: caracteristicas, beneficios e importancia, desde un enfoque multidisciplinario. CATIE/AGUILA/IDRC/ETC, TurrialbaGoogle Scholar
  36. Lundgren BO, Raintree JB (1982) Sustained agroforestry. In: Nestel B (ed) Agricultural research for development: potentials and challenges in Asia. ISNAR, The Hague, pp 37–49Google Scholar
  37. MacDowell DM (1983) The nature of Aristophanes’ ‘Akharnians’. Greece & Rome 30(2):143–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mann S (2014) Urban agroforestry: connecting agroecology, permaculture, urban forestry and urban agriculture with agroforestry, ecological principles of agroforestry. University of Missouri, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  39. Mbow C, Van Noordwijk M, Prabhu R, Simons T (2014) Knowledge gaps and research needs concerning agroforestry’s contribution to sustainable development goals in Africa. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 6:162–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McCarthy H (1993) managing oaks and the acorn crop. In: Thomas CB, Anderson K (eds) Before the wilderness: environmental management by native Californians. Ballena Press, Menlo ParkGoogle Scholar
  41. McLain R, Poe M, Hurley PT, Lecompte-Mastenbrook J, Emery MR (2012) Producing edible landscapes in Seattle’s urban forest. Urban For Urban Green 11(2):187–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. MEA (2005) Millennium ecosystem assessment findings, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  43. Méndez VE, Lok R, Somarriba E (2001) Interdisciplinary analysis of homegardens in Nicaragua: micro- zonation, plant use and socioeconomic Importance. Agrofor Syst 51(2):85–96Google Scholar
  44. Merriam CH (1918) The Acorn, a possibly neglected source of food. Natl Geogr Mag 34(2):129–137Google Scholar
  45. Miller RW (1997) Urban forestry: planning and managing urban greenspaces, 2nd edn. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller RW (2004) Urban forestry: history and introduction. In: Konijnendijk CC, Schipperijn J, Hoyer KK (eds) Forestry serving urbanised societies. Selected papers from a conference jointly organized by IUFRO, EFI and the Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning – KVL in Copenhagen, Denmark, 27–30 August 2002. Vienna, IUFRO, 2004. – 407 p – (IUFRO world series vol 14)Google Scholar
  47. Miller JR (2005) Biodiversity conservation and the extinction of experience. Trends Ecol Evol 20(8):430–434CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Montagnini F (2006) Homegardens of Mesoamerica: biodiversity, food security, and nutrient management. In: Kumar BM, Nair PKR (eds) Tropical homegardens: a time-tested example of sustainable agroforestry. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 61–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Morgan K (2009) Feeding the city: the challenge of urban food planning. Int Plan Stud 14(4):341–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Morgan K, Sonnino R (2010) The urban foodscape: world cities and the new food equation. Camb J Regions, Econ Soc, rsq007Google Scholar
  51. Nair PK (2007) The coming of age of agroforestry. J Sci Food Agric 87(9):1613–1619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nowak DJ (1994) Understanding the structure of urban forests. J For 92:42–46Google Scholar
  53. Nowak DJ, Dwyer JF (2007) Understanding the benefits and costs of urban forest ecosystems. In: Kuser JE (ed) Urban and community forestry in the northeast. Springer, New York, pp 25–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Odurukwe S (2004) Agroforestry in Peiurban Cities of Abia State, Nigeria. In Urban Agriculture Magazine, no 13, RUAF, Leusden. Available at: http://www.ruaf.org/sites/default/files/AgroforestryinPeriurbanCitiesofAbiaState,Nigeria_1.pdf
  55. Peyre A, Guidal A, Wiersum KF, Bongers F (2006) Dynamics of homegarden structure and function in Kerala, India. Agrofor Syst 66(2):101–115Google Scholar
  56. Pyle RM (1978) The extinction of experience. Horticulture 56:64–67Google Scholar
  57. Rao MR, Rao BR (2006) Medicinal plants in tropical homegardens. In: Kumar BM, Nair PKR (eds) Tropical homegardens. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 205–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ricci L, Sanou B, Baguian H (2015) Climate risks in West Africa: Bobo-Dioulasso local actors’ participatory risks management framework. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 13:42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Salbitano F, Borelli S, Sanesi G (2015) Urban forestry and agroforestry. In: de Zeeuw H, Drechsel P (eds) Cities and agriculture: developing resilient urban food systems. Routledge - Earthscan, Oxon, pp 285–311Google Scholar
  60. Seattle Department of Neighborhoods (2016) Beacon food forest. Webpage. Available at: http://www.seattle.gov/neighborhoods/programs-and-services/p-patch-community-gardening/p-patch-list/beacon-food-forest
  61. Sy M et al (2014) Multiple use of green spaces in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Urban Agric Mag 27Google Scholar
  62. TEEB (2010) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity ecological and economic foundations. In: Kumar P (ed). Earthscan, London/Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  63. Thaman RR (1992) Agrodeforestation as a major threat to sustainable development. In: Thistlethwaite R and Votaw G. (eds.)Google Scholar
  64. Thaman RR (1988) Environmental issues in the Pacific Islands: constraints to sustainable island development, Pacific Issues 1. Pacific Circle Consortium, Woden, pp 1–77Google Scholar
  65. Torquebiau E (1992) Are tropical agroforestry homegardens sustainable? In: Agric Ecosyst. Environ, vol 41, pp 189–207Google Scholar
  66. Ulrich RS (1981) Natural versus urban sciences: some psycho-physiological effects. Environ Behav 13:523–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. UN-Habitat (2014) The State of Africa Cities 2014: re-imaging sustainable urban transition. Nairobi, United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Available at: http://unhabitat.org/books/state-of-african-cities-2014-re-imagining-sustainable-urban-transitions/
  68. United Nations (2014) World Urbanization Prospects. The 2014 Revision. Highlights. New York. Available at: http://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/highlights/wup2014-highlights.pdf
  69. USDA (2015) Working trees for Islands. Available at: http://nac.unl.edu/documents/workingtrees/brochures/Working_Trees_Islands.pdf
  70. van Leeuwen, B (2010) Dealing with urban diversity: promises and challenges of city life for intercultural citizenship. Polit Theor 38(5):631–657Google Scholar
  71. Wezel A, Bender S (2003) Plant species diversity of home-gardens of Cuba and its significance for household food supply. Agrofor Syst 57(1):39–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wiskerke JSC (2015) Urban food systems. In: Cities and agriculture: developing resilient urban food systems, 1Google Scholar
  73. World Health Organization (2002) WHO traditional medicine strategy 2002–2005. WHO, Geneva. Available at: http://www.wpro.who.int/health_technology/book_who_traditional_medicine_strategy_2002_2005.pdf Google Scholar
  74. Yamada M, Osaqui HML (2006) The role of homegardens in agroforestry development: lessons from Tome-Acu, a Japanese–Brazilian settlement in the Amazon. In: Tropical homegardens. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 299–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Borelli
    • 1
  • M. Conigliaro
    • 1
  • S. Quaglia
    • 1
  • F. Salbitano
    • 2
  1. 1.Food and Agricultural Organization of United Nations (FAO)Forestry Department (FO), Forest Policy and Resources Division (FOA)RomeItaly
  2. 2.Landscape Ecology Laboratory, Department of Agricultural, Food and Forest Systems Management (GESAAF)University of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations