The Religious Space of Edo, Considering the Distribution and Functions of Temples and Shrines

Chapter
Part of the International Perspectives in Geography book series (IPG, volume 8)

Abstract

In this chapter, I examine the distribution, landscape and functions of temples and shrines in the city of Edo (premodern Tokyo); and evaluate the urban structures whose construction is based on the mystical and religious aspects of spatial design. A city design modeled on Heian-kyo (ancient Kyoto) was applied to the construction of the city of Edo, and was arranged according to the four directions and their connections with gods. Religion had two main functions: social maintenance and leisure activities. Regarding the social maintenance function, temples and shrines were under the control of the Tokugawa shogunate during the Edo period. They were integrated into the system of maintaining social order, playing a marginal role in the mechanism of the Tokugawa shogunate. Conversely, temples and shrines with spacious precincts developed into places of leisure, visited by the public to worship and enjoy eating, drinking, and relaxing walks, in addition to visiting on festival days and for annual events.

Keywords

Religious space Landscape of temples and shrines Recreational space Edo Control of religion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to Ms. Yasuko Masuyama, technical assistant of the University of Tsukuba. She assisted me in the construction of figures and in the organization of the text.

References

  1. Hanyu F (2005) A study on the formation and maturity of Meisho in Tokyo City after the Meiji restoration. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 68:843–848. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Hanyu F, Okano Y (2003) A study on the characteristic of traditional sights of Edo, and on its transition after the Meiji restoration. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 66:457–460. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hong C (1993) Urban land use in Tokyo in the early twentieth century: a comparison with Edo. Geogr Rev Jpn 66A:540–554. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ichiko N, Suzuki K (1996; revised 1997) Edo Meisho Zue, New Ver.1-6. Chikuma-gakugei-bunko (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  5. Ito T (1995) Temples in Megalopolis Edo. Urban Hist Annu 3:13–21. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  6. Jinnai H (1992) Spatial anthropology of Tokyo (Tokyo no Kukan Jinruigaku). Chikuma-gakugei, bunko (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  7. Kanbayashi M, Amemiya M, Yokoharhi M, Fujikawa M (2008) The use of temple gardens in Edo era and their transformation processes during Meiji era. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 71:463–468. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kaneyuki S (2000) Space and society of Jisha-chi (Religious District) in Edo. Urban Hist Annu 8:24–38. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  9. Kawai Y (2001) Mt. Fuji as a sacred site: on historical change in Fuji-kou and Fuji-zuka in the 23 wards of Tokyo. Geogr Rev Jpn 74A:349–366. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kikuchi T, Maruyama S, Inazaki T, Kumaki Y, Kureha M, Sano O, Sugai T, Marui A (2013) Introduction to the special issue on “Tokyo: Past, Present, and Future (Part I)”. J Geogr 122:916–920CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kikuchi T, Maruyama S, Inazaki T, Kumaki Y, Kureha M, Sano O, Sugai T, Marui A (2014) Introduction to the special issue on “Tokyo: Past, Present, and Future (Part II)”. J Geogr 123:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kondo R (1995) Landscape appreciation of regional pilgrimage courses in Edo City. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 58:161–164. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Masai Y (1975) 1:20,000 urban land use map of Edo (Tokyo) ca. 1860. J Jpn Cartographers Assoc 13(1):9–16. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  14. Matsui K (2013) Sacred sites for tourism strategy. University of Tsukuba Press, Tsukuba. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  15. Matsui K (2014) Discussions on the religious space of Edo City: the landscape and functions of temples and shrines. J Geogr (Chigaku Zasshi) 123:451–471. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Metropolitan Tokyo, Chuo Ward (Ed.) (1958) History of Chuo Ward 1 (Chuo-ku-shi). Chuo ward (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. Metropolitan Tokyo, Minato Ward (Ed.) (1960) History of Minado Ward 1 (Minato-ku-shi). Minato ward (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  18. Miki K (2001) The cult of Mitsumine in Edo: its development and social background. J Hum Geogr 53:1–17. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Miyamoto K (1996) Urban plan of Edo City (Edo no Toshikeikaku). Kodansha (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Miyata N (1993) Popular religion in Edo (Edo no Hayarigami). Chikuma-gakugei, bunko (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  21. Mizuno A (2007) A correspondence of four Guardian gods (Shishin-Souou, Si shen xian ying) and the use of plants to represent them. Stud Humanit Soc Sci 3:161–200. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  22. Murai Y (ed) (1993) Encyclopedia of Kyoto (Kyoto-ziten). Tokyodo-shuppan (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  23. Naito A (1966) Edo and Edo Castle (Edo to Edo-jo). Kashima shuppankai (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  24. Naito M (1996) Urban plan of Edo as religious city (Mato Edo no Toshikeikaku). Yosensha (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Naito M (2007) Cosmology of Tokugawa Shogunate (Edo Oken no Cosmology). Hosei University Press, Hosei. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  26. Nishiyama M (1983) Life and culture in Edo City (Edo no Seikatsu-bunka). Yoshikawa-kobunkan (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  27. Nishiyama M, Gunzi M, Minami H, Zinbou K, Minami K, Takeuchi M, Miyata N, Yoshihara K (Eds.) (1984) Encyclopedia of Edo studies (Edogaku-ziten). Kobundo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  28. Nitto K (1998) Character of the temples in Edo through an analysis of “Gofunai Jisha Biko”. Urban History Annu 6:3–18. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  29. Ohmiya N, Shimomura A, Kumagai Y (1995) A study on the transition of the collective representation in landscape in Tokyo since modern ages from “Meisho-Zue” pictures and one hundred pictures of scenic spots. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 58:429–437. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ono S (1983) Excursing places in the outskirts of Edo. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 46(4):235–250. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ono R (1987) The planning concept of noted place: in case of Asuka-yama. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 51(5):13–18. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Onodera A (2002) Pilgrimage to Ise Shrine from Kanto region. In: Institute for the Culture of Travel (ed) Pilgrimage to Ise Shrine in pictorial diagrams (Ezu ni miru Isemairi), Kawadeshobo-shinsha, Tokyo, pp 38–43 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  33. Onodera A (2005) Changes in religious organizations for pilgrimage to Ise shrine: a case in Higashi-futami, Akashi City. Hist Geogr 47:4–19. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  34. Shibuya S (2005) Feng Shui terms and their concept seen in topographical records and geography books in Chosun-period Korea. Hist Geogr 47:64–79. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  35. Shimomura A, Egashira T (1992) Study on the space-structure of recreation- space in Edo era. J Jpn Inst Landscape Arch 55(5):307–312. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shinoda A, Fukui T, Nakai Y, Shinohara O (2004) Location and movements of Shinto-shrines in Edo City. J Hist Stud Civ Eng 23:157–164. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  37. Suzuki M (1988) Urban plan of Edo City (Edo no Toshikeikaku). Sanseido (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  38. Suzuki M (2000) How has Edo City been built? (Edo ha koushite Tsukurareta). Chikuma-gakugei, bunko (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  39. Tamamuro F (1971) Religious institution in Tokugawa period (Edobakufu no Shukyo-tousei). Hyoron-sha (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  40. Tamura A (1992) Story of the creation of Edo and Tokyo (Edo Tokyo Machizukuri Monogatari). Jiji Press Ltd, Tokyo (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  41. Tone R, Oikawa K, Asami Y (2005) An analysis of morphological characteristics and contribution to urban natural environment of shrines and temples as green open space in Tokyo. Theor Appl of GIS 13(2):21–29. (in Japanese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  42. Wakatsuki S (1971) Religion policy and its background of Edo feudal government. J Fac Buddh Komazawa Univ 29:32–45. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  43. Watanabe Y (1990) Feng shui and East Asia (Fusui to Higashi-azia). Zinbun-shoin (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  44. Watanabe Y (1994) Feng shui: Chinese geomancy (Fusui Ki no Keikan Chirigaku). Zinbun-shoin (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  45. Watanabe Y (2001) Social anthropology of Feng shui (Fusuishiso no Shakai Zinruigaku). Fukyosha (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  46. Watanabe M (2011) Transition of Buddhist temples area in Yanaka District in Taito: focusing on the graveyard area. J Architect Plann 76:2255–2262. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Watanabe M (2013) Transition of the Buddhist temple area in the Nishi-Asakusa District, Taito. J Architect Plann 78:715–723. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Yamachika H (1991) Formation of theatre districts in precincts of temples and shrines in Kyoto during the late Edo period. J Hum Geogr 43:439–459. (in Japanese with English abstract)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Life and Environmental SciencesUniversity of TsukubaTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations