Epidemiology and Forecasting

  • Govind Singh Saharan
  • Naresh Mehta
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena


In epidemics of downy mildews, the pathogen population starts from a low level of initial inoculum which then increases exponentially through successive cycles on the host during the growing season. The seasonal increase of the pathogen population has been investigated much more thoroughly than that of the initial inoculum. Information has been generated on the multiplication phase of the disease, which relates to the sequence of events in the life of the pathogen on its host, which are infection, colonization, and sporulation. The studies on forecasting of crucifers’ downy mildew disease are limited to prediction models.


  1. Achar PN (1998) Effects of temperature on germination of Peronospora parasitica conidia and infection of Brassica oleracea. J Phytopathol 146:137–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bains SS, Jhooty JS (1979) Mixed infections by Albugo candida and Peronospora parasitica on Brassica juncea inflorescence and their control. Indian Phytopath 32:268–271Google Scholar
  3. Banerjee S, Bhattacharya I, Khan SA, Huda AKS (2010) Weather sensitivity of downy mildew and Alternaria blight of mustard in the gangetic west Bengal, India. J Sci Found 8:77–81Google Scholar
  4. Butler EJ, Jones SQ (1949) Plant pathology. McMillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Chou CK (1970) An electron-microscope study of host penetration and early stages of haustorium formation of Peronospora parasitica (Fr.) Tul. on cabbage cotyledons. Ann Bot 34:189–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chu HT (1935) Notes on the penetration phenomena and haustorium formation of Peronospora brassicae Gaum. Ann Phytopathol Soc Jpn 2:150–157Google Scholar
  7. D'Ercole N (1975) Peronospora disease of cauliflower in north central Italy. Informatore Fitopatol 25:21–23Google Scholar
  8. Eddins AH (1943) Control downy mildew of cabbage with Spergon and Fermate. Florida Agric Exp Stn Press Bull 589. 4pGoogle Scholar
  9. Felton MW, Walker JC (1946) Environmental factors affecting downy mildew of cabbage. Aust J Agric Res 72:69–81Google Scholar
  10. Hammarlund C (1931) Shorter mycological notices II. A giant form of Peronospora brassicae Gaumann (=P. parasitica (Fries) Tulasne) on Raphanus sativus f. radicula. Bot Notiser 5:392–393Google Scholar
  11. Jiang Y, Caldwell CD (2015) Effect of nitrogen fertilization on Camelina seed yield, yield components, and downy mildew infection. Can J Plant Sci 96:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jonsson R (1966) Peronospora on oil yielding Brassicas. Methods for testing resistance in winter rape and their results. Sver Utsadestor Tidskr 76:54–62Google Scholar
  13. Kolte SJ, Awasthi RP, Vishwanath (1986) Effect of planting dates and associated weather factors on staghead phase of white rust and downy mildew of rapeseed and mustard. Indian J Mycol Plant Pathol 16:94–102Google Scholar
  14. Mehta N (1993) Epidemiology of white rust and downy mildew disease complex in mustard and residual toxicity of fungitoxicant. Ph.D. Thesis, CCS. Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India: 154pGoogle Scholar
  15. Mehta N, Saharan GS (1998) Effect of planting dates on infection and development of white rust and downy mildew disease complex in mustard. J Mycol Plant Pathol 28:259–265Google Scholar
  16. Mehta N, Saharan GS, Sharma OP (1995) Influence of temperature and free moisture on the infection and development of downy mildew on mustard. Plant Dis Res 10:114–121Google Scholar
  17. Nakov B (1972) The effect of ecological factors on the dissemination of Peronospora parasitica (Pers.) Fr. on cabbage. Nauch Trudov Vissh Selskostop Inst V Kolarov; Plovdiv 21:109–116Google Scholar
  18. Natti JJ, Harvey GER, Sayre CB (1956) Factors contributing to the increase of downy mildew of broccoli in New York State and its control with fungicides and agrimycin. Plant Dis Report 40:118–124Google Scholar
  19. Petraitiene E, Brazauskiene I (2005) Incidence and severity of Alternaria blight (Alternaria spp.) and downy mildew (Peronospora parasitica) as affected by winter oilseed rape sowing time and nitrogen fertilizer rate. Agronomijas Vestis (Latvian J Agro) 8:158–162Google Scholar
  20. Quanjer HM (1928) The influence of potash deficiency on the susceptibility of cauliflower to Peronospora parasitica. Tijdschr, Over Plantenziekten 34:254–256Google Scholar
  21. Saharan GS (1984) A review of research on rapeseed mustard pathology in India. Annual Workshop AICORPO ICAR, Jaipur, 6–10 August 1984Google Scholar
  22. Saharan GS, Verma PR, Nashaat NI (1997) Monograph of downy mildew of crucifers. Saskatoon Res Cent Tech Bull, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 1997–01, 197 ppGoogle Scholar
  23. Sangeetha CG, Siddaramaiah AL (2007) Epidemiological studies of white rust, downy mildew and Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (Linn.) Czern & Coss.] African J Agric Res 2(7):305–308Google Scholar
  24. Sinobas Alonso J, Diaz Alonso M (1995) The mildew of the crucifers in the term of villa del Prado (Madrid): epidemiological notes. Boletín de Sanidad Vegetal Plagas 21:497–506Google Scholar
  25. Sochting HP, Verret JA (2004) Effects of cultivation systems: soil management, nitrogen fertilization on the epidemics of fungal diseases in oil seed rape (Brassica napus L. Var. napus). J Plant Dis Protect 111:1–29Google Scholar
  26. Townsend GR (1935) Everglades Experimental Station. Report Florida Expt Stn 1933-34, pp. 86–112Google Scholar
  27. Vladimirskaya ME, Ilyina MH, Klinkovskaya IK (1975) Forecasting disease incidence on cabbage crops as influenced with their cultivation practices. Mikol Fitopatol 9:130–132Google Scholar
  28. Williams PH, Leung H (1981) Methods of breeding for multiple disease resistant Chinese cabbage. In: Talekar NS, Griggs TD (eds) Chinese cabbage. Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium. The Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Shanhua, Taiwan, pp 393–403Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Govind Singh Saharan
    • 1
  • Naresh Mehta
    • 1
  • Prabhu Dayal Meena
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyCCS Haryana Agricultural UniversityHisarIndia
  2. 2.ICAR-Directorate of Rapeseed Mustard ResearchBharatpurIndia

Personalised recommendations