Investigation on Bidirectional DC/DC Converters for Energy Management and Control

Conference paper


This paper investigates a DSP based dual active full bridge phase shift (DAFBFS) DC/DC power converter for performing advanced energy management and control functions in renewable energy based power generation systems, e.g., wind and solar power generation systems. The hardware system of the proposed DAFBFS DC/DC converter includes two full-bridge circuit units, a coupling inductor and a high-frequency transformer especially designed for fast charging and discharging control of a battery energy storage system (BESS). The proposed DAFBFS converter has a number of merits, i.e., electrical isolation, high voltage gain, fast response in real-time current regulation and simplicity in designing its controllers with a single control variable. In this paper, issues regarding the operating principles, mathematical modeling and controllers of the DAFBFS converter are discussed. To achieve a better efficiency and enhance functional flexibility in hardware implementation, a fully digital control scheme with a TI DSP as the core controller is developed and experimentally verified. Typical simulation and experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed control scheme.


Battery energy storage system Dc/Dc converter Digital controller Digital signal processor Energy management Renewable power generation 



This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Science and Technology, R.O.C. under Grant MOST 105-2221-E-239-022.


  1. 1.
    L.F. Ochoa, G.P. Harrison, Minimizing energy losses: optimal accommodation and smart operation of renewable distributed generation. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 26(1), 198–205 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D.Q. Hung, N. Mithulananthan, DG allocation in primary distribution systems considering loss reduction, in Handbook of Renewable Energy Technology (World Scientific Publishers, Singapore, 2011), pp. 587–628Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    I. El-Samahy, E. El-Saadany, The effect of DG on power quality in a deregulated environment. Proc. IEEE Power Eng. Soc. Gen. Meet 2969–2976 (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Xiangjun, H. Dong, L. Xiaokang, Battery energy storage station (BESS)-based smoothing control of photovoltaic (PV) and wind power generation fluctuations. IEEE Trans. Sustainable Energy 4(2), 464–473 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Sebastián, Application of a battery energy storage for frequency regulation and peak shaving in a wind diesel power system. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 10(3), 764–770 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Farhadi, O. Mohammed, Energy storage technologies for high-power applications. IEEE Trans Ind Appl 52(3), 1953–1961 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Zidar, P.S. Georgilakis, N.D. Hatziargyriou, T. Capuder, D. Skrlec, Review of energy storage allocation in power distribution networks: applications, methods and future research. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 10(3), 645–652 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. Chaouachi, R.M. Kamel, R. Andoulsi, K. Nagasaka, Multiobjective intelligent energy management for a microgrid. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 60(4), 1688–1699 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Kumar, S.C. Srivastava, S.N. Singh, M. Ramamoorty, Development of a control strategy for interconnection of islanded direct current microgrids. IET Renew. Power Gener. 9(3), 284–296 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Guarnieri, P. Mattavelli, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, Vanadium redox flow batteries: potentials and challenges of an emerging storage technology. IEEE Ind. Electron. Mag. 10(4), 20–31 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    D.A. Riccardo, L. Baumann, A. Damiano, E. Boggasch, A vanadium-redox-flow-battery model for evaluation of distributed storage implementation in residential energy systems. IEEE Trans Energy Convers 30(2), 421–430 (2015)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C.-T. Ma, Design and implementation of a bidirectional DC/DC converter for BESS operations, in Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science: Proceedings of the International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2017, Hong Kong, 15–17 Mar 2017, pp. 666–671Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    J.S. Wang, S.X. Li, PID decoupling controller design for electroslag remelting process using cuckoo search algorithm with self-tuning dynamic searching mechanism. Eng. Lett. 25(2), 125–133 (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.K. Obichere, M. Jovanovic, S. Ademi, improved power factor controller for wind generator and applications. Eng. Lett. 24(2), 125–131 (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Karaca, E. Bektas, Selective harmonic elimination using genetic algorithm for multilevel inverter with reduced number of power switches. Eng. Lett. 24(2), 138–143 (2016)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Bhattacharya, T. Zhao, G. Wang, S. Dutta, S. Baek, Y. Du, B. Parkhideh, X. Zhou, A.Q. Huang, Design and development of generation-isilicon based solid state transformer, in The Proceedings of the 25th Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (Palm Springs, CA, 2010), pp. 1666–1673Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    S. Inoue, H. Akagi, A bidirectional isolated dc-dc converter as a core circuit of the next-generation medium-voltage power conversion system. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 22(2), 535–542 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O. Garcia, L.A. Flores, J.A. Oliver, J.A. Cobos, J. de la Pena, Bidirectional DC-DC converter for hybrid vehicles, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, June 2005, pp. 1881–1886Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. Zhu, A novel soft-commutating isolated boost full-bridge ZVS-PWM DC-DC converter for bi-directional high power applications, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, June 2004, pp. 2141–2146Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    E.S. Kim, K.Y. Joe, H.Y. Choi, Y.H. Kim, Y.H. Cho, An improved soft switching bi-directional PSPWM FB DC/DC converter, in IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Conference, Sept 1998, pp. 740–743Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. Li, A. Pottharst, N.K. Witting, M. Dellnitz, O. Znamenshchykov, R. Feldmann, Design and implementation of a hybrid energy supply system for railway vehicles, in Twentieth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Mar 2005, pp. 474–480Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.J. Jang, T.W. Lee, W.C. Lee, C.Y. Won, Bidirectional DC to DC converters for fuel cell generation system, in IEEE Power Electronics Specialists Conference, June 2004, pp. 4722–4728Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EE, CEECSNational United UniversityMiaoli CityTaiwan, ROC

Personalised recommendations