Plant Growth-Promoting Microbes (PGPM) as Potential Microbial Bio-Agents for Eco-Friendly Agriculture

  • Madhurama GangwarEmail author
  • Preeti Saini
  • Pooja Nikhanj
  • Sukhjinder Kaur
Part of the Microorganisms for Sustainability book series (MICRO, volume 4)


The use of chemical fertilizers generates environmental and public health problems. The exploitation of beneficial microbes as a biofertilizer has become of foremost importance in agriculture sector for their impending role in sustainable crop production. Eco-friendly approaches inspire a wide range of application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), endo- and ectomycorrhizal fungi, cyanobacteria and many other useful microorganisms for improved nutrient uptake, plant growth and plant tolerance to abiotic and biotic stress. PGPR use different mechanisms like biofertilization including biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and exopolysaccharides production; phytostimulation including production of indole acetic acid, gibberellins, cytokinins and ethylene; and biocontrol including stimulation of systemic resistance, competition for iron, nutrient and space, production of antibiotics, lytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide and volatile compounds. In scrutiny of the recent advances in PGPR biotechnology, this chapter describes the rhizospheric PGPRs and the different mechanisms used by PGPR to promote the plant’s growth and health.


Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) Chemical fertilizer Eco-friendly agriculture Biofertilizer Mycorrhizal fungi 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madhurama Gangwar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Preeti Saini
    • 1
  • Pooja Nikhanj
    • 1
  • Sukhjinder Kaur
    • 1
  1. 1.Punjab Agricultural UniversityLudhianaIndia

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