Being Employed as a ‘Nyusheng’: Gendered and Heteronormative Management in the Workplace

  • Ting-Fang Chin
Part of the Gender, Sexualities and Culture in Asia book series (GSCA)


In Chap.  3 I present and analyse my participants’ accounts to draw attention to the practices of organisational management in Taiwan. With the help of feminist theories on gender and heterosexuality, I argue that organisational management is gendered and heteronormative as it categorises female employees as naturally marriage- and family-oriented. Women are expected to work in certain industries and are confined to these, holding certain positions and doing certain jobs because of their gender. These practices therefore result in gender segregation in employment.


  1. Adkins, L. (1995). Gendered Work: Sexuality, Family and the Labour Market. Bristol, PA: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bacik, I., & Drew, E. (2006). Struggling with Juggling: Gender and Work/Life Balance in the Legal Professions. Women’s Studies International Forum, 29(2), 136–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooks, A. (2006). Gendered Work in Asian Cities: The New Economy and Changing Labour Markets. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  4. Chao, Y. (2008). Drinks, Stories, Penis and Breasts: Lesbian Tomboys in Taiwan from the 1960s to the 1990s. Journal of Homosexuality, 40(3–4), 185–209.Google Scholar
  5. Cheng, L. (2010). Why Aren’t Women Sticking with Science in Taiwan? The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 26(6), S28–S34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheng, Y., Wu, S., & Wong, Y. [鄭雅文, 吳宣蓓, & 翁裕峰]. (2011). 過勞職災的認定爭議與政策因應: 日本經驗對台灣的啟示 [Disputes and Policy Responses Concerning the Hazards of Overwork and Workers’ Compensation: Experiences in Japan and Their Implications for Taiwan]. 灣公共衛生雜誌 [Taiwan Journal of Public Health], 30(4), 301–315.Google Scholar
  7. Chiu, W. [邱文仁]. (2011). 女人何苦為難女人 [Why Women Persecute Women], 自由時報 [Liberty Times], August 8. Retrieved August 18, 2016, from
  8. Chou, W., Chen, C., Fosh, P., & Foster, D. (2009). The Changing Face of Women Managers in Taiwan. In C. Rowley & V. Yukongdi (Eds.), The Changing Face of Women Managers in Asia (pp. 171–198). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Cockburn, C. (1991). In the Way of Women: Men’s Resistance to Sex Equality in Organizations. Houndmills: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crompton, R., & Lyonette, C. (2006). Work–Life ‘Balance’ in Europe. Acta Sociologica, 49(4), 379–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans, J. (1997). Men in Nursing: Issues of Gender Segregation and Hidden Advantage. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26(2), 226–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faulkner, W. (2009). Doing Gender in Engineering Workplace Cultures. I. Observations from the Field. Engineering Studies, 1(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glover, J., & Guerrier, Y. (2010). Women in Hybrid Roles in IT Employment: A Return to ‘Nimble Fingers’? Journal of Technology Management & Innovation, 5(1), 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Guerrier, Y., Ecans, C., Glover, J., & Wilson, C. (2009). ‘Technical, but Not Very …’: Constructing Gendered Identities in IT-related Employment. Work, Employment and Society, 23(3), 495–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo, J., & Liang, G. (2012). Sailing into Rough Seas: Taiwan’s Women Seafarers’ Career Development Struggle. Women’s Studies International Forum, 35, 194–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hartmann, H. (1976). Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Job Segregation by Sex. Signs, 1(3), 137–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hioe, B. (2016). Tsai Ing-Wen and Taiwan’s Year of the Female Politician? New Bloom, February 13. Retrieved August 9, 2016, from
  18. Hou, Y. [侯岳宏]. (2013). 未依法定計算方法給付加班費之效力 [The Effect of Overtime Payment not Conforming to the Calculation Method Prescribed in the Act]. 臺北大學法學論叢 [Taipei University Law Review], 88, 261–291.Google Scholar
  19. Ingraham, C. (1994). The Heterosexual Imaginary: Feminist Sociology and Theories of Gender. Sociological Theory, 12(2), 203–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackson, S. (2001). Why a Materialist Feminism Is (Still) Possible and Necessary. Women’s Studies International Forum, 24(3–4), 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jackson, S. (2006). Gender, Sexuality and Heterosexuality: The Complexity (and Limits) of Heteronormativity. Feminist Theory, 7, 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jackson, S., & Scott, S. (2004). The Personal Is Still Political: Heterosexuality, Feminism and Monogamy. Feminism & Psychology, 14(1), 151–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jackson, S., & Scott, S. (2010). Theorizing Sexuality. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Lu, L., Gilmour, R., Kao, S. F., & Huang, M. T. (2006). A Cross-Cultural Study of Work/Family Demands, Work/Family Conflict and Wellbeing: The Taiwanese vs. British. Career Development International, 11(1), 9–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mies, M. (1998). Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale : Women in the International Division of Labour. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  26. Ministry of Health and Welfare [衛生福利部]. (2015). 社會工作人員專職人數 [The Statistics on the Number of Full-Time Social Workers]. Taiwan. Retrieved August 10, 2016, from
  27. Ministry of Labour [勞動部] (2015). 性別勞動統計專輯 [Report of Gender Labour Statistics]. Retrieved March 15, 2016, from
  28. Munn Giddings, C. (1998). Mixing Motherhood and Academia: A Lethal Cocktail. In D. Malina & S. Maslin-Prothero (Eds.), Surviving the Academy: Feminist Perspectives (pp. 56–58). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Ochiai, E. (2008). Researching Gender and Childcare in Contemporary Asia. In E. Ochiai & B. Molony (Eds.), Asia’s New Mothers: Crafting Gender Roles and Childcare Networks in East and Southeast Asian Societies (pp. 1–30). Kent: Global Oriental Ltd.Google Scholar
  30. Ochiai, E., Mari, Y., Yasuko, M., Zhou, W., Onode, S., Kiwaki, N., Fujita, M., & Hong, S. (2008). Gender Roles and Childcare Networks in East and Southeast Asian Societies. In E. Ochiai & B. Molony (Eds.), Asia’s New Mothers: Crafting Gender Roles and Childcare Networks in East and Southeast Asian Societies (pp. 31–70). Kent: Global Oriental Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Panteli, N., Stack, J., & Ramsey, H. (2001). Gendered Patterns in Computing Work in the Late 1990s. New Technology, Work and Employment, 16(1), 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Phillips, A., & Taylor, B. (1980). Sex and Skill: Notes Towards a Feminist Economics. Feminist Review, 6, 79–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ramsay, K., & Letherby, G. (2006). The Experience of Academic Non-mothers in the Gendered University. Gender, Work and Organization, 13(1), 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sechiyama, K. (2013). Patriarchy in East Asia: A Comparative Sociology of Gender. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  35. Smithson, J., & Stokoe, E. H. (2005). Discourses of Work–Life Balance: Negotiating ‘Genderblind’ Terms in Organizations. Gender, Work & Organization, 12(2), 147–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tu, C., & Kuo, A. [涂鉅旻、郭安家]. (2014). 「婦科在女人大腿中討生活」柯又失言 [‘Doing Obstetrics and Gynaecology Is Making a Living Between Women’s Legs’, Ko Made a Gaffe Again]. 自由時報 [Liberty Times], 8 September. Retrieved August 10, 2016, from
  37. Wang, N. [王能君]. (2012). 勞動基準法上加班法律規範與問題之研究-日本與臺灣之加班法制與實務 [The Enforcement and Practice of Overtime Regulations of Labour Standards Act between Japan and Taiwan]. 臺北大學法學論叢 [Taipei University Law Review], 81, 75–138.Google Scholar
  38. Watts, J. H. (2009). ‘Allowed into a Man’s World’ Meanings of Work–Life Balance: Perspectives of Women Civil Engineers as ‘Minority’ Workers in Construction. Gender, Work & Organization, 16(1), 37–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yen, C., & Wu, Y. [顏振凱、吳詠航]. (2006). 辜:統帥不應讓穿裙子的當 [Koo: ‘Commander in Chief Should not Be a Skirt-Wearing Person’], 蘋果日報 [Apple Daily], 15 December. Retrieved August 10, 2016, from
  40. Yu, A. [余艾苔]. (2014). 陳以真可坐櫃檯惹議,柯P:當市長要有歷練 [The Comment ‘Chen Yi-Chen Can Sit at a Counter’ Sparked Controversy. Ko: A Mayor Must Have Experience’]. 蘋果日報 [Apple Daily], 7 September. Retrieved August 10, 2016, from
  41. Yu, W. (2009). Gendered Trajectories: Women, Work and Social Change in Japan and Taiwan. Stanford: Stanford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ting-Fang Chin
    • 1
  1. 1.University of YorkYorkUK

Personalised recommendations