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Fracture

  • Amit BhaduriEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 264)

Abstract

Variation of interatomic bonding force (cohesive force) with interatomic spacing. Evaluation of ideal fracture strength (cohesive strength in an ideally perfect crystal). Relation of geometrical discontinuity (flaw) in a body with theoretical (or, elastic) stress concentration factor and material’s fracture strength. Effects of notch on material’s fracture behaviour: ‘notch strengthening’ and ‘notch weakening’. Distributions of elastic stresses ahead of a notch and of elastic/plastic stresses during local yielding in the vicinity of a notch in plane stress and plane strain conditions. Characteristic features of fracture process. Fractography describing dimpled fracture (different shapes of the dimple depending on the state of stress), cleavage fracture, quasi-cleavage fracture and intergranular fracture. Griffith theory of brittle fracture and its applicability. Modification of Griffith theory by Orowan relation for brittle metals. Modification by Irwin approach introducing ‘elastic strain energy release rate’, its significance and experimental measurement. Stress intensity factor and its expressions depending on the types of loading and the geometry of crack and specimen configurations. Different modes of crack surface displacement. Relationship between energy release rate and stress intensity factor. Plastic-zone size at crack tip and effective stress intensity factor due to crack-tip plasticity in plane stress and strain conditions. Fracture toughness: plane stress versus plane strain. Test to determine plane-strain fracture toughness and design philosophy using it. Problems and solutions.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology KharagpurKharagpurIndia

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